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  • Intravenous anaesthetic agents

    20 March 2018

    This article summarizes the properties of the drugs frequently used for intravenous induction of anaesthesia. The mechanism of general anaesthesia is still largely unknown, and so the physicochemical properties, metabolism and side effects of these drugs are more relevant to their use than the way that they cause unconsciousness. This article also highlights some historical aspects of anaesthesia and new developments in drug administration. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Ventilation and gas exchange during sustained exercise at normal and raised CO2 in man.

    15 March 2018

    Five subjects underwent each of three protocols for 43 min: (A) at rest; end-tidal PCO2 was held constant at 2-5 Torr above resting values; (B) during 70 Watt bicycle exercise; PETCO2 was uncontrolled; (C) during 70 Watt exercise; PETCO2 was held 2-5 Torr above exercising values. During all protocols, end-tidal PO2 (PETO2) was held at 100 Torr. The first 5 min of each protocol were excluded from data analysis to approach a steady state, and the remaining 38 min analysed to determine whether any trends were present. At rest, ventilation did not change over the 38 min period. However, during hypercapnic exercise (protocol C), ventilation rose significantly by a mean +/- SE of 4.9 +/- 0.8 L/min (P less than 0.01) over the 38 min period. In protocol B, ventilation was lower than in protocol C, but did not change over the 38 min period. However, PETCO2 fell significantly by a mean of 0.65 +/- 0.05 Torr (P less than 0.01). This change in PETCO2 was due to a significant fall in the respiratory quotient (mean = -0.05 +/- 0.01, P less than 0.01) and metabolic CO2 production (mean = -0.06 +/- 0.01 L/min, P less than 0.01). The fall in respiratory quotient implies a change in metabolic substrate during exercise. Furthermore, the results suggest that ventilation is not always matched closely to metabolic CO2 production during exercise.

  • Intravenous anaesthetic agents

    27 October 2017

    This article summarizes the properties of the drugs frequently used for intravenous induction of anaesthesia. The mechanism of general anaesthesia is still largely unknown, and so the physicochemical properties, metabolism and side effects of these drugs are more relevant to their use than the way that they cause unconsciousness. This article also highlights new developments in drug administration and some newer agents. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Analysis of blood gases and acid-base balance

    28 November 2017

    Analysis of blood gases is widely used for patients with many different conditions from surgical, medical and intensive care fields. Knowledge of the basic science behind the subject is essential to gain a full understanding of what the results mean on a typical blood gas result. Understanding the history of acid-base physiology and why certain analytical tools were developed can make interpretation easier. The scope of this article is to explain some of the background to this area and show how it relates to clinical medicine. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.