Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.
  • Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID): development and psychometric properties of a new measure for use with people with mild intellectual disability.

    3 July 2018

    BACKGROUND: Self-rating scales are widely used in general adult practice; however, there is no reliable and valid method for assessing state anxiety in people with intellectual disability (ID). The present study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a new scale, the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for People with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID). METHODS: First, an item pool was generated from focus groups, a review of the literature and clinician feedback. Secondly, a draft scale was administered to 19 anxious and 16 non-anxious people with ID for further validation and appraisal of reliability. Thirdly, the scale was completed by 19 anxious, non-ID people for cross-validation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Finally, physiological concomitants were validated by pulse-oximetry. RESULTS: The 27-item GAS-ID discriminated anxious from non-anxious participants, had good test-retest reliability (r = 0.95) and internal consistency (alpha = 0.96), and was reasonably correlated with the BAI (rho = 0.75). The correlation between the physiological subscale of the GAS-ID and changes in pulse rate was moderately significant (rho = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that the GAS-ID offers a psychometrically robust and practical (5-10 min) approach to the appraisal of anxiety in this population.

  • Insomniacs' reported use of CBT components and relationship to long-term clinical outcome.

    3 July 2018

    Although there is considerable evidence for the efficacy of non-pharmacological treatment of insomnia, many of the larger trials have delivered CBT in multicomponent format. This makes it impossible to identify critical ingredients responsible for improvement. Furthermore, compliance with home implementation is difficult to ascertain in psychological therapies, and even more so when trying to differentiate across a range of elements. In the present report, 90 patients who had completed 12 month follow-up after participation in a clinical effectiveness study of CBT in general medical practice, responded to a questionnaire asking them about their use of the ten components of the programme. Reports of home use were then entered as predictors of clinical response to treatment. Results indicated that reported home use of stimulus control/sleep restriction was the best predictor of clinical improvement in sleep latency and nighttime wakefulness. Cognitive restructuring also contributed significantly to reduction in wakefulness. In spite of being the most highly endorsed component (by 79% of respondents) use of relaxation did not predict improvement on any variable. Similarly, sleep hygiene was unrelated to sleep pattern change and use of imagery training was modestly predictive of poor response in terms of sleep latency. There are methodological limitations to this type of post hoc analysis, nevertheless, these results being derived from a large patient outcome series raise important issues both for research and clinical practice.

  • The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic insomnia: implementation and evaluation of a sleep clinic in general medical practice.

    3 July 2018

    Chronic insomnia is a very common clinical condition which may respond well to non-pharmacological treatment. Indeed, the literature supports the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). However, there has been no substantial study of clinical effectiveness. Since insomniacs typically present in general medical practice this is a crucial gap in the outcome research. This study, therefore, specifically investigated the clinical effectiveness of CBT delivered by Health Visitors (primary care nurses) trained as therapists. One hundred and thirty-nine insomniacs (mean age 51 yr) were randomised to CBT or Self-Monitoring Control (SMC) in a controlled trial. CBT comprised six group sessions (n=4 to 6 patients). After the controlled phase, SMC patients entered deferred treatment (CBT-DEF), allowing both treatment replication and long-term outcome to be investigated for a sizeable, treated sample. Repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated superiority of CBT over SMC in substantially reducing sleep latency and wakefulness during the night. CBT-DEF replicated similar effects and maintained improvement was observed in both groups one year later. Furthermore, total sleep increased significantly during follow-up and 84% of patients initially using hypnotics remained drug-free. Results suggest that CBT administered by Health Visitors offers a clinically effective treatment for insomnia.

  • Derivation of research diagnostic criteria for insomnia: report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Work Group.

    3 July 2018

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent, often debilitating, and economically burdensome form of sleep disturbance caused by various situational, medical, emotional, environmental and behavioral factors. Although several consensually-derived nosologies have described numerous insomnia phenotypes, research concerning these phenotypes has been greatly hampered by a lack of widely accepted operational research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for their definition. The lack of RDC has, in turn, led to inconsistent research findings for most phenotypes largely due to the variable definitions used for their ascertainment. Given this problem, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Work Group (WG) to review the literature and identify those insomnia phenotypes that appear most valid and tenable. In addition, this WG was asked to derive standardized RDC for these phenotypes and recommend assessment procedures for their ascertainment. This report outlines the WG's findings, the insomnia RDC derived, and research assessment procedures the WG recommends for identifying study participants who meet these RDC.

  • Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia

    3 July 2018

    This paper reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for primary chronic insomnia. It is based on a review of 48 clinical trials and two meta-analyses conducted by a task force appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to develop practice parameters on non-drug therapies for the clinical management of insomnia. The findings indicate that nonpharmacological therapies produce reliable and durable changes in several sleep parameters of chronic insomnia sufferers. The data indicate that between 70% and 80% of patients treated with nonpharmacological interventions benefit from treatment. For the typical patient with persistent primary insomnia, treatment is likely to reduce the main target symptoms of sleep onset latency and/or wake time after sleep onset below or near the 30-min criterion initially used to define insomnia severity. Sleep duration is also increased by a modest 30 minutes and sleep quality and patient's satisfaction with sleep patterns are significantly enhanced. Sleep improvements achieved with these behavioral interventions are sustained for at least 6 months after treatment completion. However, there is no clear evidence that improved sleep leads to meaningful changes in daytime well-being or performance. Three treatments meet the American Psychological Association (APA) criteria for empirically-supported psychological treatments for insomnia: Stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, and paradoxical intention; and three additional treatments meet APA criteria for probably efficacious treatments: Sleep restriction, biofeedback, and multifaceted cognitive-behavior therapy. Additional outcome research is needed to examine the effectiveness of treatment when it is implemented in clinical settings (primary care, family practice), by non-sleep specialists, and with insomnia patients presenting medical or psychiatric comorbidity.

  • Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review.

    3 July 2018

    This paper reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for primary chronic insomnia. It is based on a review of 48 clinical trials and two meta-analyses conducted by a task force appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to develop practice parameters on non-drug therapies for the clinical management of insomnia. The findings indicate that nonpharmacological therapies produce reliable and durable changes in several sleep parameters of chronic insomnia sufferers. The data indicate that between 70% and 80% of patients treated with nonpharmacological interventions benefit from treatment. For the typical patient with persistent primary insomnia, treatment is likely to reduce the main target symptoms of sleep onset latency and/or wake time after sleep onset below or near the 30-min criterion initially used to define insomnia severity. Sleep duration is also increased by a modest 30 minutes and sleep quality and patient's satisfaction with sleep patterns are significantly enhanced. Sleep improvements achieved with these behavioral interventions are sustained for at least 6 months after treatment completion. However, there is no clear evidence that improved sleep leads to meaningful changes in daytime well-being or performance. Three treatments meet the American Psychological Association (APA) criteria for empirically-supported psychological treatments for insomnia: Stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, and paradoxical intention; and three additional treatments meet APA criteria for probably efficacious treatments: Sleep restriction, biofeedback, and multifaceted cognitive-behavior therapy. Additional outcome research is needed to examine the effectiveness of treatment when it is implemented in clinical settings (primary care, family practice), by non-sleep specialists, and with insomnia patients presenting medical or psychiatric comorbidity.

  • The natural history of insomnia: a population-based 3-year longitudinal study.

    3 July 2018

    BACKGROUND: Despite its high prevalence, little information is available about the natural history of insomnia. The extent to which episodes of insomnia will persist or remit over time is difficult to predict. We examined the natural history of insomnia and describe the most common trajectories over 3 years. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-eight adults (mean [SD] age, 44.8 [13.9] years; 61% women) were selected from a larger population-based sample on the basis of the presence of insomnia at baseline. They completed standardized sleep/insomnia questionnaires at 3 annual follow-up assessments. For each follow-up assessment, participants were classified into 1 of 3 groups (individuals with an insomnia syndrome, individuals with insomnia symptoms, and individuals with good sleep) on the basis of algorithms using standard diagnostic criteria for insomnia. Rates of persistent insomnia, remission, and relapse were computed for each group. RESULTS: Of the study sample, 74% reported insomnia for at least 1 year (2 consecutive assessments) and 46% reported insomnia persisting over the entire 3-year study. The course of insomnia was more likely to be persistent in those with more severe insomnia at baseline (ie, insomnia syndrome) and in women and older adults. Remission rate was 54%; however, 27% of those with remission of insomnia eventually experienced relapse. Individuals with subsyndromal insomnia at baseline were 3 times more likely to remit than worsen to syndrome status, although persistence was the most frequent course in that group as well. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that insomnia is often a persistent condition, in particular when it reaches the diagnostic threshold for an insomnia disorder.

  • Randomized controlled clinical effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy compared with treatment as usual for persistent insomnia in patients with cancer.

    3 July 2018

    PURPOSE: Persistent insomnia is a common complaint in cancer survivors, but is seldom satisfactorily addressed. The adaptation to cancer care of a validated, cost-effective intervention may offer a practicable solution. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of protocol-driven cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia, delivered by oncology nurses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Randomized, controlled, pragmatic, two-center trial of CBT versus treatment as usual (TAU) in 150 patients (103 females; mean age, 61 years.) who had completed active therapy for breast, prostate, colorectal, or gynecological cancer. The study conformed to CONSORT guidelines. Primary outcomes were sleep diary measures at baseline, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Actigraphic sleep, health-related quality of life (QOL), psychopathology, and fatigue were secondary measures. CBT comprised five, small group sessions across consecutive weeks, after a manualized protocol. TAU represented normal clinical practice; the appropriate control for a clinical effectiveness study. RESULTS: CBT was associated with mean reductions in wakefulness of 55 minutes per night compared with no change in TAU. These outcomes were sustained 6 months after treatment. Standardized relative effect sizes were large for complaints of difficulty initiating sleep, waking from sleep during the night, and for sleep efficiency (percentage of time in bed spent asleep). CBT was associated with moderate to large effect sizes for five of seven QOL outcomes, including significant reduction in daytime fatigue. There was no significant interaction effect between any of these outcomes and baseline demographic, clinical, or sleep characteristics. CONCLUSION: CBT for insomnia may be both clinically effective and feasible to deliver in real world practice.