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  • Targeting retinal ganglion cell recovery.

    15 February 2018

    Accumulating evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggest that retinal ganglion cells at least in the earlier stages of glaucoma have the capacity to recover function following periods of functional loss. The capacity for recovery may be negatively impacted by advancing age but can be boosted by interventions such as diet restriction and exercise.

  • A retrospective survey of substance abuse in anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand from 2004 to 2013.

    8 June 2018

    A questionnaire on substance abuse was distributed electronically to the heads of 185 Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists accredited anaesthesia departments in Australia and New Zealand. The response rate was 57%. From January 2004 to December 2013, 61 cases of substance abuse were identified, giving an estimated incidence of 1.2 cases per 1000 anaesthetist years. Of 44 detailed reports completed, the majority were aged between 30 and 49 years, were male and of specialist grade. However, when corrected for gender and grade, the estimated overall incidence was higher in females and twice as high for trainees compared with specialists. When compared with prior surveys, the pattern of substance abuse in Australia and New Zealand appears to have changed significantly, with a notable increase in propofol and alcohol abuse and a decrease in reported cases of opioid abuse. Common presenting features of abuse included intoxication and witnessed abuse. Seventy percent of cases had more than one comorbid condition, most frequently either mental health or family problems. Only 32% of abusers had made a long-term recovery within the specialty. Death was the eventual outcome in 18% overall, with a particularly high mortality associated with propofol abuse (45%). Trainee suicide from all causes was reported at three times the rate of specialists. The findings indicate that substance abuse remains a significant problem in Australia and New Zealand and is associated with a significant mortality rate.

  • Cerebellar Asymmetry and Cortical Connectivity in Monozygotic Twins with Discordant Handedness.

    15 June 2018

    Handedness differentiates patterns of neural asymmetry and interhemispheric connectivity in cortical systems that underpin manual and language functions. Contemporary models of cerebellar function incorporate complex motor behaviour and higher-order cognition, expanding upon earlier, traditional associations between the cerebellum and motor control. Structural MRI defined cerebellar volume asymmetries and correlations with corpus callosum (CC) size were compared in 19 pairs of adult female monozygotic twins strongly discordant for handedness (MZHd). Volume and asymmetry of cerebellar lobules were obtained using automated parcellation.CC area and regional widths were obtained from midsagittal planimetric measurements. Within the cerebellum and CC, neurofunctional distinctions were drawn between motor and higher-order cognitive systems. Relationships amongst regional cerebellar asymmetry and cortical connectivity (as indicated by CC widths) were investigated. Interactions between hemisphere and handedness in the anterior cerebellum were due to a larger right-greater-than-left hemispheric asymmetry in right-handed (RH) compared to left-handed (LH) twins. In LH twins only, anterior cerebellar lobule volumes (IV, V) for motor control were associated with CC size, particularly in callosal regions associated with motor cortex connectivity. Superior posterior cerebellar lobule volumes (VI, Crus I, Crus II, VIIb) showed no correlation with CC size in either handedness group. These novel results reflected distinct patterns of cerebellar-cortical relationships delineated by specific CC regions and an anterior-posterior cerebellar topographical mapping. Hence, anterior cerebellar asymmetry may contribute to the greater degree of bilateral cortical organisation of frontal motor function in LH individuals.

  • Full simulation of the LUCID experiment in the Low Earth Orbit radiation environment

    26 December 2017

    © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. The Langton Ultimate Cosmic ray Intensity Detector (LUCID) experiment is a satellite-based device that uses five Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detectors to make measurements of the radiation environment at an altitude of approximately 630 km, i.e. in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The experiment launched aboard Surrey Satellite Technology Limited's (SSTL's) TechDemoSat-1 on Tuesday the 8th of July 2014. The Timepix detectors, developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration, are arranged to form the five sides of a cube enclosed by a 0.7 mm thick aluminium covering, and are operated in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode to allow the flux, energy and directionality of incident ionising radiation to be measured. To understand the expected detector performance with respect to these measurements, the LUCID experiment has been modelled using the Allpix software package, a generic simulation toolkit for silicon pixel detectors built upon the GEANT4 framework. The work presented here summarises studies completed using the GridPP Collaboration's computing grid infrastructure to perform the simulations, store the resultant datasets, and share that data with the LUCID Collaboration. The analysis of these datasets has given an indication of the expected performance in differing space radiation environments (for example, during passes of the polar regions or the South Atlantic Anomaly), and has allowed the LUCID Collaboration to prepare for when data is transmitted back to Earth in late 2014.

  • Search for supersymmetry in pp collisions at 7 TeV in events with jets and missing transverse energy

    13 June 2018

    © 2011 CMS Collaboration A search for supersymmetry with R-parity conservation in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb −1 collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The search is performed in events with jets and significant missing transverse energy, characteristic of the decays of heavy, pair-produced squarks and gluinos. The primary background, from standard model multijet production, is reduced by several orders of magnitude to a negligible level by the application of a set of robust kinematic requirements. With this selection, the data are consistent with the standard model backgrounds, namely tt¯, W + jet and Z + jet production, which are estimated from data control samples. Limits are set on the parameters of the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. These limits extend those set previously by experiments at the Tevatron and LEP colliders.

  • Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the MoEDAL Forward Trapping Detector in 13 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC.

    14 June 2018

    MoEDAL is designed to identify new physics in the form of long-lived highly ionizing particles produced in high-energy LHC collisions. Its arrays of plastic nuclear-track detectors and aluminium trapping volumes provide two independent passive detection techniques. We present here the results of a first search for magnetic monopole production in 13 TeV proton-proton collisions using the trapping technique, extending a previous publication with 8 TeV data during LHC Run 1. A total of 222 kg of MoEDAL trapping detector samples was exposed in the forward region and analyzed by searching for induced persistent currents after passage through a superconducting magnetometer. Magnetic charges exceeding half the Dirac charge are excluded in all samples and limits are placed for the first time on the production of magnetic monopoles in 13 TeV pp collisions. The search probes mass ranges previously inaccessible to collider experiments for up to five times the Dirac charge.

  • CERN@School: Forming Nationwide Collaborations for Physics Research in Schools

    30 November 2017

    © , Copyright Taylor & Francis. CERN@school is a program that brings CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, into the classroom. By supplying schools with cutting-edge detector technology and giving them access to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, students in the United Kingdom are being offered the opportunity to conduct authentic research in the field of nuclear and particle physics. Thanks to the support of the Science and Technology and Facilities Council (STFC), the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, and the Institute of Physics, the program has resulted in a nationwide network of student scientists working together to conduct a number of research projects. This article looks at how CERN@school has achieved this, some of the ongoing experiments, and the potential for rolling out the approach across the world.

  • OPTIMA

    26 August 2016

    CPSD

    The Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA) started in 1988 and the last LEAD participants were seen in March 2015. We are no longer recruiting to any of the cohorts. However, we are currently creating the OPTIMA Legacy Resource from which data collected from the OPTIMA cohorts is available and samples are biobanked and available. Brain tissue is available as part of the Brains For Dementia Research (BDR) collection.

  • Models of Brain Decision Networks

    21 July 2014

    DCN

    Our group uses computer simulations and mathematical analyses to understand the information processing and activity dynamics of brain networks underlying decision making. We use these models to investigate how neural circuits work in the healthy state, how their dynamics deteriorate in neurological disorders, and how their dynamics and information processing may be best restored by treatments.

  • Translational Molecular Neuroscience Group

    14 February 2018

    NDCN

    Drug discovery in neuroscience is very challenging but the need is greater than ever. Perhaps the most important factor for successfully developing an effective therapy, is the identification of human disease relevant drug targets. Our group aims to elucidate the pathophysiological basis of human neurological disorders from genetic molecular networks to complex neural systems using human genetics, human models and human tissue wherever possible.

  • Congenital Myasthenia Service

    15 January 2013

    DCN

    We provide a nationally commissioned specialised service for the diagnosis and management of children and adults in whom a congenital myasthenic syndrome is suspected.

  • Breathe Oxford

    13 May 2014

    NDA

  • Oxford Epilepsy Research Group

    2 April 2014

    DCN

    We are a forward-looking dynamic group interested in all aspects of clinical and experimental epileptology with an emphasis on clinically relevant research. The Group draws together all relevant disciplines across Oxford University Hospitals and the University of Oxford.