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  • The Impact of Preterm Birth on Hospital Inpatient Admissions and Costs during the First 5 Years of Life

    3 July 2018

    Objectives. To compare the cumulative use and cost of hospital inpatient services to 5 years of age by individuals divided into 4 subgroups by gestational age at birth. Design. Costs applied to the hospital service utilization profile of each infant born in 2 areas covered by the Oxford Record Linkage Study during 1970-1993. Setting. Oxfordshire and West Berkshire, southern United Kingdom. Subjects. 239 694 individuals divided into 4 subgroups by gestational age at birth: <28 weeks, 28 to 31 weeks, 32 to 36 weeks, ≥37 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. Number and duration of hospital admissions during the first 5 years of life and costs, expressed in £ sterling and valued at 1998-1999 prices, of hospital inpatient services. Results. The total duration of hospital admissions for infants born at <28 and at 28 to 31 gestational weeks was 85 and 16 times that for term infants, respectively, once duration of life had been taken into account. Hospital inpatient service costs were significantly higher for preterm infants than for term infants, with the cost differences persisting throughout infancy and early and mid-childhood. Over the first 5 years of life, the adjusted mean cost difference was estimated at £14 614 (US $22 798) when infants born at <28 weeks gestational age were compared with term infants and £11 958 (US $18 654) when infants born at 28 to 31 weeks gestational age were compared with term infants. Independent contributions to total cost came from being born: small for gestational age, a multiple, during the 1970s and early 1980s, to a woman of extreme maternal age or who was hospitalized antenatally, and from experiencing extended survival or childhood disease. However, preterm birth remained the strongest predictor of high cost. Conclusions. Preterm birth is a major predictor of how much an individual will cost hospital service providers during the first 5 years of life.

  • The impact of preterm birth on hospital inpatient admissions and costs during the first 5 years of life.

    3 July 2018

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the cumulative use and cost of hospital inpatient services to 5 years of age by individuals divided into 4 subgroups by gestational age at birth. DESIGN: Costs applied to the hospital service utilization profile of each infant born in 2 areas covered by the Oxford Record Linkage Study during 1970-1993. SETTING: Oxfordshire and West Berkshire, southern United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 239 694 individuals divided into 4 subgroups by gestational age at birth: <28 weeks, 28 to 31 weeks, 32 to 36 weeks, >or=37 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and duration of hospital admissions during the first 5 years of life and costs, expressed in pound sterling and valued at 1998-1999 prices, of hospital inpatient services. RESULTS: The total duration of hospital admissions for infants born at <28 and at 28 to 31 gestational weeks was 85 and 16 times that for term infants, respectively, once duration of life had been taken into account. Hospital inpatient service costs were significantly higher for preterm infants than for term infants, with the cost differences persisting throughout infancy and early and mid-childhood. Over the first 5 years of life, the adjusted mean cost difference was estimated at pound 14,614 ( 22,798 US dollars) when infants born at <28 weeks gestational age were compared with term infants and pound 11,958 ( 18,654 US dollars) when infants born at 28 to 31 weeks gestational age were compared with term infants. Independent contributions to total cost came from being born: small for gestational age, a multiple, during the 1970s and early 1980s, to a woman of extreme maternal age or who was hospitalized antenatally, and from experiencing extended survival or childhood disease. However, preterm birth remained the strongest predictor of high cost. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm birth is a major predictor of how much an individual will cost hospital service providers during the first 5 years of life.

  • Long-term durability of carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic stenosis and risk factors for late postoperative stroke.

    3 July 2018

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces the risk of stroke ipsilateral to recently symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Other techniques such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting are currently being compared with CEA. Thus far, case series and several small, randomized, controlled trials of CEA versus percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (with and without stenting) have focused primarily on the 30-day procedural risks of stroke and death. However, long-term durability is also important. To determine the long-term risk of stroke after CEA and to identify risk factors, we studied patients in the European Carotid Study Trial (ECST), the largest published cohort with long-term follow-up by physicians after CEA. METHODS: Risks of ipsilateral carotid territory ischemic stroke were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis starting on the 30th day after CEA in 1728 patients who underwent trial surgery. Risk factors were determined by Cox regression. For comparison, we also determined the "background" risk of stroke on medical treatment in the ECST in the territory of 558 previously asymptomatic contralateral carotid arteries with <30% angiographic stenosis (ECST method) at randomization. RESULTS: The risks of disabling ipsilateral ischemic stroke and any ipsilateral ischemic stroke were constant after CEA, reaching 4.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0 to 5.8] and 9.7% (95% CI, 7.6 to 11.7), respectively, by 10 years. The equivalent ischemic stroke risks distal to contralateral <30% asymptomatic carotid stenoses were 1.9% (95% CI, 0.8 to 3.2) and 4.5% (95% CI, 1.5 to 7.4). Presentation with cerebral symptoms, diabetes, elevated systolic blood pressure, smoking, male sex, increasing age, and a lesser severity of preoperative stenosis were associated with an increased risk of late stroke after CEA, but plaque morphology and patch grafting were not. CONCLUSIONS: Although the risk of late ipsilateral ischemic stroke after CEA for symptomatic stenosis is approximately double the background risk in the territory of <30% asymptomatic stenosis, it is still only approximately 1% per year and remains low for at least 10 years after CEA. This is the standard against which alternative treatments should be judged. Several risk factors may be useful in identifying patients at particularly high risk of late postoperative stroke.

  • Cerecyte coil trial: angiographic outcomes of a prospective randomized trial comparing endovascular coiling of cerebral aneurysms with either cerecyte or bare platinum coils.

    3 July 2018

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report the primary outcome of the Cerecyte Coil Trial, a randomized trial to determine whether polymer-loaded Cerecyte coils compared with Micrus bare platinum coils improved the proportion of patients with angiographic occlusion of the aneurysm at 6 months when assessed by a core laboratory. The secondary objectives were to compare the clinical outcomes and retreatment rates in the 2 groups. METHODS: Five hundred patients between 18 and 70 years of age with a ruptured or unruptured target aneurysm were randomized to be treated with either Cerecyte or bare platinum coils in 23 centers worldwide. Two hundred forty-nine patients were assigned to Cerecyte coils and 251 to bare platinum coils. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-four patients were eligible for analysis. Four hundred eighty-one patients underwent coil treatment of their aneurysm, 227 patients with recently ruptured aneurysms and 254 with unruptured aneurysms. Four hundred thirty-three follow-up angiograms were assessed by the core laboratory; 127 of 215 (59%) and 118 of 218 (54%) in the Cerecyte and bare platinum groups, respectively, fulfilled the trial prespecified definition of success, namely that the treated aneurysm showed complete angiographic occlusion, had stable neck remnant, or improved in angiographic appearance compared with the end-of-treatment angiogram (P=0.17). Late retreatment was performed in 25 of 452 (5.5%) patients, 17 (7.7%) Cerecyte versus 8 (3.5%) bare platinum (P=0.064; range, 4-34 months). The clinical outcomes did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference at 6 months in the angiographic outcomes between Cerecyte coils and bare platinum coils when assessed by the core laboratory. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: www.controlled-trials.com. Unique Identifier: ISRCTN82461286.

  • Reprinted article "Carotid artery disease and stroke during coronary artery bypass: a critical review of the literature".

    3 July 2018

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of carotid artery disease in the pathophysiology of stroke after coronary artery bypass (CABG). DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature. RESULTS: The risk of stroke after CABG was 2% and remained unchanged between 1970-2000. Two-thirds occurred after day 1 and 23% died. 91% of screened CABG patients had no significant carotid disease and had a <2% risk of peri-operative stroke. Stroke risk increased to 3% in predominantly asymptomatic patients with a unilateral 50-99% stenosis, 5% in those with bilateral 50-99% stenoses and 7-11% in patients with carotid occlusion. Significant predictive factors for post-CABG stroke included; (i) carotid bruit (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.8-4.6), (ii) prior stroke/TIA (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.7-4.9) and (iii) severe carotid stenosis/occlusion (OR 4.3, 95% CI 3.2-5.7). However, the systematic review indicated that 50% of stroke sufferers did not have significant carotid disease and 60% of territorial infarctions on CT scan/autopsy could not be attributed to carotid disease alone. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid disease is an important aetiological factor in the pathophysiology of post-CABG stroke. However, even assuming that prophylactic carotid endarterectomy carried no additional risk, it could only ever prevent about 40-50% of procedural strokes.

  • Snoring and severity of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a population-based study.

    3 July 2018

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea has increasingly been linked to cardiovascular damage. More recently, the snoring component itself has been independently linked to the presence of carotid atheroma, via local arterial trauma. We aimed to identify whether a snoring history is a risk factor for carotid stenosis in individuals presenting with a TIA or ischemic stroke. METHODS: Participants in the Oxford Vascular Study (OXVASC) were asked about their snoring history as part of an entry questionnaire. In 561 individuals with a recent TIA or stroke, who had both a complete snoring questionnaire and carotid imaging, the relationship between presence and severity of snoring and the degree of carotid artery stenosis in both the symptomatic (culprit) and asymptomatic (non-culprit) sides. RESULTS: Of 561 participants (287 male, mean/SD age = 73.3/11.0 years), 90 (16.0%) had ≥ 50% carotid stenosis, and 154 (27.5%) snored frequently (≥ 1-2 times/week). No significant associations were identified between frequency of self-reported snoring, and the degree of culprit and non-culprit carotid vessel stenosis, or plaque morphology. CONCLUSIONS: No significant association could be identified between a history of frequent snoring and the presence of carotid atheroma, degree of stenosis, or plaque type.