Cerebral atrophy and its relation to cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease
Nagano-Saito A., Washimi Y., Arahata Y., Kachi T., Lerch JP., Evans AC., Dagher A., Ito K.
Objective: Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare the amounts of gray matter in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and normal control subjects (NCs) and to identify the specific regions responsible for cognitive dysfunction in PD. Methods: Patients were classified into nondemented (ND) and demented (D) groups according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.), and a group comparison was performed. In the ND patients, a correlation was also performed between local gray matter density and the score on Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), a test of executive and visuospatial function. Results: In patients with advanced ND-PD vs NCs, atrophic changes were observed in the limbic/paralimbic areas and the prefrontal cortex. In D vs ND patients, atrophic change was observed widely in the limbic/paralimbic system, including the anterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampus as well as the temporal lobe, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and caudate nucleus. The RCPM score was positively correlated with the gray matter density in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus. Conclusions: In patients with Parkinson disease (PD), atrophic changes occur mainly in the limbic/paralimbic and prefrontal areas. These atrophic changes may be related to the development of dementia in PD.