Pain and other symptoms of autonomic dysregulation such as hypertension, dyspnoea and bladder instability can lead to intractable suffering. Incorporation of neuromodulation into symptom management, including palliative care treatment protocols, is becoming a viable option scientifically, ethically, and economically in order to relieve suffering. It provides further opportunity for symptom control that cannot otherwise be provided by pharmacology and other conventional methods.
Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. email@example.com.