Stromal cell-derived receptor 2 and cytochrome b561 are functional ferric reductases.
Vargas JD., Herpers B., McKie AT., Gledhill S., McDonnell J., van den Heuvel M., Davies KE., Ponting CP.
Iron has a variety of functions in cellular organisms ranging from electron transport and DNA synthesis to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and neurotransmitter synthesis. Failure to regulate the homeostasis of iron can lead to cognition and demyelination disorders when iron levels are deficient, and to neurodegenerative disorders when iron is in excess. In this study we show that three members of the b561 family of predicted ferric reductases, namely mouse cytochrome b561 and mouse and fly stromal cell-derived receptor 2 (SDR2), have ferric reductase activity. Given that a fourth member, duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb), has previously been shown to be a ferric reductase, it is likely that all remaining members of this family also exhibit this activity. Furthermore, we show that the rat sdr2 message is predominantly expressed in the liver and kidney, with low expression in the duodenum. In hypotransferrinaemic (hpx) mice, sdr2 expression in the liver and kidney is reduced, suggesting that it may be regulated by iron. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of mouse sdr2 in the choroid plexus and in the ependymal cells lining the four ventricles, through in situ hybridization analysis.