Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Most existing brain-computer Interfaces (BCIs) are designed to control a single assistive device, such as a wheelchair, a robotic arm or a prosthetic limb. However, many daily tasks require combined functions which can only be realized by integrating multiple robotic devices. Such integration raises the requirement of the control accuracy and is more challenging to achieve a reliable control compared with the single device case. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid BCI with high accuracy based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrooculogram (EOG) to control an integrated wheelchair robotic arm system. The user turns the wheelchair left/right by performing left/right hand motor imagery (MI), and generates other commands for the wheelchair and the robotic arm by performing eye blinks and eyebrow raising movements. Twenty-two subjects participated in a MI training session and five of them completed a mobile self-drinking experiment, which was designed purposely with high accuracy requirements. The results demonstrated that the proposed hBCI could provide satisfied control accuracy for a system that consists of multiple robotic devices, and showed the potential of BCI-controlled systems to be applied in complex daily tasks.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Neurosci

Publication Date





brain-computer interface (BCI), electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), hybrid BCI, robotic arm, wheelchair