Deep phenotyping of 34,128 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and a comparison with 81,596 influenza patients in America, Europe and Asia: an international network study
Burn E., You SC., Sena A., Kostka K., Abedtash H., Abrahao MTF., Alberga A., Alghoul H., Alser O., Alshammari TM., Aragon M., Areia C., Banda JM., Cho J., Culhane AC., Davydov A., DeFalco FJ., Duarte-Salles T., DuVall SL., Falconer T., Fernandez-Bertolin S., Gao W., Golozar A., Hardin J., Hripcsak G., Huser V., Jeon H., Jing Y., Jung CY., Kaas-Hansen BS., Kaduk D., Kent S., Kim Y., Kolovos S., Lane J., Lee H., Lynch KE., Makadia R., Matheny ME., Mehta P., Morales DR., Natarajan K., Nyberg F., Ostropolets A., Park RW., Park J., Posada JD., Prats-Uribe A., Rao GA., Reich C., Rho Y., Rijnbeek P., Schilling LM., Schuemie M., Shah NH., Shoaibi A., Song S., Spotnitz M., Suchard MA., Swerdel J., Vizcaya D., Volpe S., Wen H., Williams AE., Yimer BB., Zhang L., Zhuk O., Prieto-Alhambra D., Ryan P.
<jats:p>Background In this study we phenotyped individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in depth, summarising entire medical histories, including medications, as captured in routinely collected data drawn from databases across three continents. We then compared individuals hospitalised with COVID-19 to those previously hospitalised with influenza. Methods We report demographics, previously recorded conditions and medication use of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the US (Columbia University Irving Medical Center [CUIMC], Premier Healthcare Database [PHD], UCHealth System Health Data Compass Database [UC HDC], and the Department of Veterans Affairs [VA OMOP]), in South Korea (Health Insurance Review & Assessment [HIRA]), and Spain (The Information System for Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP] and HM Hospitales [HM]). These patients were then compared with patients hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19. Results 34,128 (US: 8,362, South Korea: 7,341, Spain: 18,425) individuals hospitalised with COVID-19 were included. Between 4,811 (HM) and 11,643 (CUIMC) unique aggregate characteristics were extracted per patient, with all summarised in an accompanying interactive website (http://evidence.ohdsi.org/Covid19CharacterizationHospitalization/). Patients were majority male in the US (CUIMC: 52%, PHD: 52%, UC HDC: 54%, VA OMOP: 94%,) and Spain (SIDIAP: 54%, HM: 60%), but were predominantly female in South Korea (HIRA: 60%). Age profiles varied across data sources. Prevalence of asthma ranged from 4% to 15%, diabetes from 13% to 43%, and hypertensive disorder from 24% to 70% across data sources. Between 14% and 33% were taking drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system in the 30 days prior to hospitalisation. Compared to 81,596 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, patients admitted with COVID-19 were more typically male, younger, and healthier, with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. Conclusions We provide a detailed characterisation of patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Protecting groups known to be vulnerable to influenza is a useful starting point to minimize the number of hospital admissions needed for COVID-19. However, such strategies will also likely need to be broadened so as to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals hospitalised with COVID-19.</jats:p>