Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

© 2020 Autoimmune neurological diseases are an expanding group of phenotypically characteristic, potentially treatable syndromes. A number of these conditions are mediated by autoantibodies. The last decade has identified distinctive clinical clues to help diagnose these diseases, and increased clinical experience regarding the effectiveness of immunotherapies. Awareness of these conditions among non-specialists – as well as neurologists and psychiatrists – is crucial as early immunotherapy improves outcomes. To discuss the most common antibody-associated neurological conditions, we focus on autoimmune myasthenic syndromes and neuromyotonia in the peripheral nervous system, and their rapidly expanding central nervous system counterparts, which include neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune encephalitis. We also discuss other related conditions, including stiff person syndrome and classical paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. We discuss strategies for identification, differential diagnosis, investigation and treatment. Although individually these conditions are uncommon, cumulatively they form a significant group of treatable diseases that frequently present to general medicine and are important for all physicians to recognize promptly.

Original publication




Journal article


Medicine (United Kingdom)

Publication Date





534 - 540