Optimizing time-frequency feature extraction and channel selection through gradient backpropagation to improve action decoding based on subthalamic local field potentials
Martineau T., He S., Vaidyanathan R., Brown P., Tan H.
Neural oscillating patterns, or time-frequency features, predicting voluntary motor intention, can be extracted from the local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) or thalamus of human patients implanted with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes for the treatment of movement disorders. This paper investigates the optimization of signal conditioning processes using deep learning to augment time-frequency feature extraction from LFP signals, with the aim of improving the performance of real-time decoding of voluntary motor states. A brain-computer interface (BCI) pipeline capable of continuously classifying discrete pinch grip states from LFPs was designed in Pytorch, a deep learning framework. The pipeline was implemented offline on LFPs recorded from 5 different patients bilaterally implanted with DBS electrodes. Optimizing channel combination in different frequency bands and frequency domain feature extraction demonstrated improved classification accuracy of pinch grip detection and laterality of the pinch (either pinch of the left hand or pinch of the right hand). Overall, the optimized BCI pipeline achieved a maximal average classification accuracy of 79.67±10.02% when detecting all pinches and 67.06±10.14% when considering the laterality of the pinch.