Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are, along with bonobos, humans' closest living relatives. The advent of diffusion MRI tractography in recent years has allowed a resurgence of comparative neuroanatomical studies in humans and other primate species. Here we offer, in comparative perspective, the first chimpanzee white matter atlas, constructed from in vivo chimpanzee diffusion-weighted scans. Comparative white matter atlases provide a useful tool for identifying neuroanatomical differences and similarities between humans and other primate species. Until now, comprehensive fascicular atlases have been created for humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and several other nonhuman primate species, but never in a nonhuman ape. Information on chimpanzee neuroanatomy is essential for understanding the anatomical specializations of white matter organization that are unique to the human lineage.
Anatomy, Artistic, Animals, Atlases as Topic, Brain, Brain Mapping, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Female, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Pan troglodytes, White Matter