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Purpose This study aimed to develop a new 3D dual-echo rosette k-space trajectory, specifically for applications of ultra-short echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The direct imaging of the myelin bilayer, which has ultra-short transverse relaxation time (uT 2 ), was acquired to test the performance of the proposed UTE sequence. Theory and Methods The rosette trajectory was developed based on rotations of a ‘petal-like’ pattern in the k x -k y plane, with oscillated extensions in k z -direction for 3D coverage. Five healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent ten dual-echo rosette UTE scans with varied echo times (TEs). Dual-exponential model fitting was performed to separate uT 2 signals, with the output of uT 2 fraction, uT 2 value and long T 2 value. Results The reconstructed images’ signal contrast between white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) increased with longer TEs. The WM regions had higher uT 2 fraction values than GM (10.9%±1.9% vs. 5.7%±2.4%). The uT 2 value was about 0.12 milliseconds in WM. Conclusion The higher uT 2 fraction value in WM compared to GM demonstrated the ability of the proposed sequence to capture rapidly decaying signals.

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