Gerschlager W., Brown P.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent developments in the field of myoclonus. RECENT FINDINGS: The range of clinical features in myoclonic dystonia has been extended and its underlying pathophysiology better defined. The diverse causes leading to jerky tremor and orthostatic myoclonus have been clarified and the need to consider drugs as potential causes highlighted. In patients with combined myoclonus and epilepsy, the major advance has been in our understanding of the natural history of these conditions, which can be more benign than hitherto thought. Finally, the new condition of primary progressive myoclonus of ageing has been identified, although it remains to be seen whether this is a pathological entity or not. SUMMARY: Most progress has been in the characterization of myoclonic syndromes with dystonia and epilepsy. Therapeutic options remain limited, and exploration of the role of functional neurosurgery may be worthwhile in the future, given the debilitating nature of many myoclonic syndromes.