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INTRODUCTION: Randomised controlled trials provide evidence that a treatment works. Real world evidence is required to assess if proven treatments are effective in practice. METHOD: Retrospective data collection on patients given aflibercept for diabetic macular oedema over 3 years from 21 UK hospitals: visual acuity (VA); Index of multiple deprivation score (IMD); injection numbers; protocols used, compared as a cohort and between sites. RESULTS: Complete data: 1742 patients (from 2196 eligible) at 1 year, 860 (from 1270) at 2, 305 (from 506) at 3 years. The median VA improved from 65 to 71, 70, 70 (ETDRS letters) at 1, 2 and 3 years with 6, 9 and 12 injections, respectively. Loss to follow-up: 10% 1 year, 28.8% at 3. Centres varied: baseline: mean age 61-71 years (p 

Original publication




Journal article


Eye (Lond)

Publication Date





72 - 77


Aged, Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, Hospitals, Humans, Intravitreal Injections, Macular Edema, Middle Aged, Ranibizumab, Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Retrospective Studies, United Kingdom, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A, Visual Acuity