Neurostimulation as a Method of Treatment and a Preventive Measure in Canine Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: Current State and Future Prospects
Nowakowska M., Üçal M., Charalambous M., Bhatti S., Denison T., Meller S., Worrell G., Potschka H., Volk H.
Modulation of neuronal activity for seizure control using various methods of neurostimulation is a rapidly developing field in epileptology, especially in treatment of refractory epilepsy. Promising results in human clinical practice, such as diminished seizure burden, reduced incidence of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy, and improved quality of life has brought neurostimulation into the focus of veterinary medicine as a therapeutic option. This article provides a comprehensive review of available neurostimulation methods for seizure management in drug-resistant epilepsy in canine patients. Recent progress in non-invasive modalities, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation is highlighted. We further discuss potential future advances and their plausible application as means for preventing epileptogenesis in dogs.