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Retinopathy is a well-recognized toxic effect of hydroxychloroquine treatment. As hydroxychloroquine retinopathy is potentially a vision-threatening condition, early detection is imperative to minimize vision loss due to drug toxicity. However, early detection of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy is still challenging even with modern retinal imaging techniques. No treatment has been established for this condition, except for drug cessation to minimize further damage. In this perspective article, we aimed to summarize the knowledge gaps and unmet needs in current clinical practice and research in hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. The information presented in this article may help guide the future directions of screening practices and research in hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Med (Lausanne)

Publication Date





definition, hydroxychloroquine, natural history, perspectives, retinal toxicity, screening, unmet needs