A translational roadmap for transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation in stroke rehabilitation: Consensus-based core recommendations from the third stroke recovery and rehabilitation roundtable.
Edwards JD., Dominguez-Vargas AU., Rosso C., Branscheidt M., Sheehy L., Quandt F., Zamora SA., Fleming MK., Azzollini V., Mooney RA., Stagg CJ., Gerloff C., Rossi S., Cohen LG., Celnik P., Nitsche MA., Buetefisch CM., Dancause N.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The purpose of this Third Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable (SRRR3) was to develop consensus recommendations to address outstanding barriers for the translation of preclinical and clinical research using the non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and provide a roadmap for the integration of these techniques into clinical practice. METHODS: International NIBS and stroke recovery experts (N = 18) contributed to the consensus process. Using a nominal group technique, recommendations were reached via a five-stage process, involving a thematic survey, two priority ranking surveys, a literature review and an in-person meeting. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results of our consensus process yielded five key evidence-based and feasibility barriers for the translation of preclinical and clinical NIBS research, which were formulated into five core consensus recommendations. Recommendations highlight an urgent need for (1) increased understanding of NIBS mechanisms, (2) improved methodological rigor in both preclinical and clinical NIBS studies, (3) standardization of outcome measures, (4) increased clinical relevance in preclinical animal models, and (5) greater optimization and individualization of NIBS protocols. To facilitate the implementation of these recommendations, the expert panel developed a new SRRR3 Unified NIBS Research Checklist. These recommendations represent a translational pathway for the use of NIBS in stroke rehabilitation research and practice.