Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Abstract Objective. This study aims to characterize the time course of impedance, a crucial electrophysiological property of brain tissue, in the human thalamus (THL), amygdala-hippocampus, and posterior hippocampus over an extended period. Approach. Impedance was periodically sampled every 5–15 min over several months in five subjects with drug-resistant epilepsy using an investigational neuromodulation device. Initially, we employed descriptive piecewise and continuous mathematical models to characterize the impedance response for approximately three weeks post-electrode implantation. We then explored the temporal dynamics of impedance during periods when electrical stimulation was temporarily halted, observing a monotonic increase (rebound) in impedance before it stabilized at a higher value. Lastly, we assessed the stability of amplitude and phase over the 24 h impedance cycle throughout the multi-month recording. Main results. Immediately post-implantation, the impedance decreased, reaching a minimum value in all brain regions within approximately two days, and then increased monotonically over about 14 d to a stable value. The models accounted for the variance in short-term impedance changes. Notably, the minimum impedance of the THL in the most epileptogenic hemisphere was significantly lower than in other regions. During the gaps in electrical stimulation, the impedance rebound decreased over time and stabilized around 200 days post-implant, likely indicative of the foreign body response and fibrous tissue encapsulation around the electrodes. The amplitude and phase of the 24 h impedance oscillation remained stable throughout the multi-month recording, with circadian variation in impedance dominating the long-term measures. Significance. Our findings illustrate the complex temporal dynamics of impedance in implanted electrodes and the impact of electrical stimulation. We discuss these dynamics in the context of the known biological foreign body response of the brain to implanted electrodes. The data suggest that the temporal dynamics of impedance are dependent on the anatomical location and tissue epileptogenicity. These insights may offer additional guidance for the delivery of therapeutic stimulation at various time points post-implantation for neuromodulation therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Neural Engineering


IOP Publishing

Publication Date





026022 - 026022