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In resource-constrained environments, supply chains for consumables, repairs and calibration of diagnostic equipment are generally poor. To obviate this issue, we propose the use of widely available hardware with a strong supply chain: a cellphone with a hands-free kit. In particular, we focus on the use of the audio channel to determine heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in order to provide a first level screening system for infection. This article presents preliminary work performed on a gold standard database and a cellphone platform. Results indicate that HR and HRV can be accurately assessed from acoustic recordings of heart sounds using only a cellphone and hands-free kit. Heart sound analysis software, which can run on a standard cellphone in real time, has been developed that detects S1 heart sounds with a sensitivity of 92.1% and a positive predictivity of 88.4%. Evaluation of data recorded from cellphones demonstrates that the low-frequency response (<100 Hz) is key to the success of heart sound analysis on cellphones. Noise rejection is also shown to be important. © 2010, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.


Journal article


AAAI Spring Symposium - Technical Report

Publication Date





26 - 31