Reduced density of calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons in the planum temporale in schizophrenia.
Chance SA., Walker M., Crow TJ.
Reduced density of calbindin-containing interneurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia has been reported (Beasley et al 2002; Biol Psych 52:708-715). Calbindin is a calcium-binding protein (CBP) present in a subpopulation of GABAergic neurons restricted mainly to layer II of the cortex. A paraffin-embedded, 10-mum-thick section from the planum temporale (PT) of each hemisphere was prepared from 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 controls. Calbindin-containing cells were stained using an antibody (D-28K). Counting frames were superimposed to sample within layer II of the PT. A bilateral reduction (20%) in calbindin cell density was found in patients (controlling for fixation time). Furthermore, mean calbindin cell cross-sectional area was increased in female patients and reduced in male patients. Reduced CBP expression (reducing the excitability of interneurons) or reduced number of CBP-containing cells may cause disinhibition of pyramidal cells. The majority of calbindin-containing cells in the mature brain are double-bouquet cells with vertically oriented dendrites and axon bundles. By exercising inhibitory modulation of pyramidal cells in a columnar arrangement, they make possible cohesive vertical inhibition of minicolumns. Loss of columnar inhibition may result in reduced minicolumnar segregation and altered cell size may reflect altered minicolumn size.