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We describe a non-smoker who presented with a persistent cough, weight loss and general malaise, and had a medical history of bladder carcinoma that had been successfully treated with intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Radiology revealed hilar lymphadenopathy, a predominantly mid-zone and lower-zone lung parenchymal nodular pattern with a perilymphatic distribution, a few thickened interlobular septae, and small pleural effusions bilaterally. The T-SPOT.TB blood test was negative. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery showed multiple pleural nodules, the histopathology of which showed multiple well-defined non-caseating granulomata. The patient was started on antituberculosis medication for presumed BCGosis--a systemic complication of previous BCG immunotherapy--and the patient showed an excellent clinical and radiological response. This case further adds to previous reports and reinforces the recommendation that all patients should be made fully aware of the potential systemic and delayed complications of BCG immunotherapy when they are consented for treatment.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Case Rep

Publication Date





Adjuvants, Immunologic, Administration, Intravesical, Antineoplastic Agents, BCG Vaccine, Carcinoma, Transitional Cell, Cough, Female, Granuloma, Humans, Immunotherapy, Infection, Lung, Lung Diseases, Lymphatic Diseases, Middle Aged, Mycobacterium bovis, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms