Catastrophic brain relapse in seronegative NMO after a single dose of natalizumab.
Kitley J., Evangelou N., Küker W., Jacob A., Leite MI., Palace J.
Natalizumab, an effective treatment for MS, has been shown to exacerbate neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with aquaporin-4 antibodies, but whether this is the case in antibody negative NMO and atypical MS/NMO spectrum disorder overlap syndromes is unknown. We describe a patient with a relapsing optico-spinal demyelinating syndrome, negative for aquaporin-4 antibodies, who experienced a catastrophic brain relapse shortly after a single dose of natalizumab, highlighting that MS immunomodulatory drugs may worsen demyelination in patients with seronegative NMO and atypical MS/NMO overlap syndromes even if they are aquaporin-4 antibody negative. We summarise the treatments considered safe and effective in NMO, and those with potential to exacerbate disease.