Emerging fields in the diagnostic and treatment modalities of epilepsy
Litt LYL., Sharma VK., Wakerley B., Bharatendu C., Rathakrishnan R.
Epilepsy is common worldwide and approximately 3% of the general population will experience a seizure at some point in their lives. Recent advances have led to better understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition at the micro- and macroscopic level. Developments have occurred in facets of the management of epilepsy ranging from the diagnosis to its treatment. Non-pharmacological treatments are being extensively studied and the opportunity to offer new and effective diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with epilepsy is an exciting prospect.In this review, we discuss the emerging application of diagnostic methods including high frequency oscillations (HFO) and multi-modality techniques such as EEG-fMRI and magnetoencephalography co-registered to MRI. These allow us to simultaneously map the function and structure of the epileptic brain. We examine the utility of such tools to accurately identify the epileptogenic zone, particularly in non-lesional cases where standard imaging and diagnostic methods are not helpful. Results from some of these techniques have shed new light on the mechanisms of epileptogenesis.We also discuss novel therapeutic modalities including non-pharmacological methods such as deep brain stimulation and local ablative therapy in the management of medically refractory cases. © 2012 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.