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In the current study we look at whether subjective and proprioceptive aspects of selfrepresentation are separable components subserved by distinct systems of multisensory integration. We used the rubber hand illusion (RHI) to draw the location of the 'self' away from the body, towards extracorporeal space (Out Condition), thereby violating top-down information about the body location. This was compared with the traditional RHI which drew position of the 'self' towards the body (In Condition). We were successfully able to draw proprioceptive position of the limbs in and out from the body suggesting body perception is a purely bottom-up process, resistant to top-down effects. Conversely, we found subjective self-representation was altered by the violation of top-down body information - as the strong association of subjective and proprioceptive factors found in the In Condition became non-significant in the Out Condition. Interestingly, we also found evidence that subjective embodiment can modulate tactile perception.

Original publication




Journal article


Conscious Cogn

Publication Date





74 - 89


Multisensory integration, Proprioception, Rubber hand illusion, Self-representation, Tactile perception, Top-down factors, Adolescent, Adult, Body Image, Hand, Humans, Illusions, Male, Proprioception, Touch Perception, Young Adult