Microbiology and visual outcomes of culture-positive bacterial endophthalmitis in Oxford, UK.
Gupta A., Orlans HO., Hornby SJ., Bowler ICJW.
PURPOSE: To review the microbiology of culture-positive cases of bacterial endophthalmitis, and to correlate this with visual outcomes. METHOD: Case notes were reviewed for culture-positive cases of bacterial endophthalmitis over a period from November 1999 to June 2012. Cases were identified retrospectively using a local database. The Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of the 47 cases of culture-positive bacterial endophthalmitis identified, 81 % occurred postoperatively, 11 % followed intravitreal injection, 6 % had an endogenous source and 2 % followed ocular trauma. Eighty-seven percent of bacteria cultured were Gram-positive. The most commonly identified organisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (47 %) and Streptococcus spp. (30 %). Patients were treated with intravitreal vancomycin and either amikacin or ceftazidime. All Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to aminoglycosides and ceftazidime, and all Gram-positive isolates were vancomycin-sensitive. Final visual acuity (VA) was 6/12 or better in 41 % of cases and counting fingers (CF) or worse in 30 %. Endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus spp. was associated with a poorer final VA (OR for CF or worse = 14.9, P < 0.01). Cases caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococci had a better visual outcome (OR for VA of 6/12 or better = 5.7, P = 0.013). Five eyes were eviscerated or enucleated. Infection with Haemophilus influenzae was strongly associated with this outcome (OR = 57, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Over the time period of this study there was no evidence of emerging resistance to empirical antibiotics which are commonly used for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. Infection with coagulase-negative Staphylococci was associated with a good visual outcome, whilst infection with Streptococcus spp. or Haemophilus influenzae was associated with a poor visual outcome.