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Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) and graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs) are serious and common complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) management following chronic treatment with levodopa or intrastriatal transplantation with dopamine-rich foetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, respectively. Positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging provides a powerful in vivo tool that has been employed over the past 20 years for the elucidation of mechanisms underlying the development of LIDs and GIDs in PD patients. PET used together with radioligands tagging molecular targets has allowed the functional investigation of several systems in the brain including the dopaminergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, opioid, endocannabinoid, noradrenergic and cholinergic systems. In this article the role of PET imaging in unveiling pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of LIDs and GIDs in PD patients is reviewed.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Neurol

Publication Date





694 - e43


Parkinson, dyskinesias, graft-induced dyskinesias, levodopa-induced dyskinesias, positron emission tomography, Antiparkinson Agents, Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced, Fluorodeoxyglucose F18, Humans, Levodopa, Parkinson Disease, Positron-Emission Tomography