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Susceptibility and protection against human autoimmune diseases, including type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and Goodpasture disease, is associated with particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. However, the mechanisms underpinning such HLA-mediated effects on self-tolerance remain unclear. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism of Goodpasture disease, an HLA-linked autoimmune renal disorder characterized by an immunodominant CD4+ T-cell self-epitope derived from the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3135-145). While HLA-DR15 confers a markedly increased disease risk, the protective HLA-DR1 allele is dominantly protective in trans with HLA-DR15 (ref. 2). We show that autoreactive α3135-145-specific T cells expand in patients with Goodpasture disease and, in α3135-145-immunized HLA-DR15 transgenic mice, α3135-145-specific T cells infiltrate the kidney and mice develop Goodpasture disease. HLA-DR15 and HLA-DR1 exhibit distinct peptide repertoires and binding preferences and present the α3135-145 epitope in different binding registers. HLA-DR15-α3135-145 tetramer+ T cells in HLA-DR15 transgenic mice exhibit a conventional T-cell phenotype (Tconv) that secretes pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, HLA-DR1-α3135-145 tetramer+ T cells in HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR15/DR1 transgenic mice are predominantly CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) expressing tolerogenic cytokines. HLA-DR1-induced Treg cells confer resistance to disease in HLA-DR15/DR1 transgenic mice. HLA-DR15+ and HLA-DR1+ healthy human donors display altered α3135-145-specific T-cell antigen receptor usage, HLA-DR15-α3135-145 tetramer+ Foxp3- Tconv and HLA-DR1-α3135-145 tetramer+ Foxp3+CD25hiCD127lo Treg dominant phenotypes. Moreover, patients with Goodpasture disease display a clonally expanded α3135-145-specific CD4+ T-cell repertoire. Accordingly, we provide a mechanistic basis for the dominantly protective effect of HLA in autoimmune disease, whereby HLA polymorphism shapes the relative abundance of self-epitope specific Treg cells that leads to protection or causation of autoimmunity.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/nature22329

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nature

Publication Date

11/05/2017

Volume

545

Pages

243 - 247

Keywords

Animals, Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease, Autoimmunity, Base Sequence, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Collagen Type IV, Cytokines, Female, Forkhead Transcription Factors, HLA-DR Serological Subtypes, HLA-DR1 Antigen, Humans, Immunodominant Epitopes, Male, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Models, Molecular, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory