Investigating hydroxyl chemical exchange using a variable saturation power chemical exchange saturation transfer (vCEST) method at 3 T.
Clark DJ., Smith AK., Dortch RD., Knopp MV., Smith SA.
PURPOSE: To develop a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) scheme sensitive to hydroxyl protons at 3 T. Clinical imaging of hydroxyl moieties can have an impact on osteoarthritis, neuropsychiatric disorders, and cancer. THEORY: By varying saturation amplitude linearly with frequency offset, the direct water saturation component of the Z-spectrum is flattened and can be subtracted to produce a magnetization transfer ratio difference spectrum (MTRdiff ) that isolates solute resonances. Variable saturation power allows for near optimization of hydroxyl and amine/amide moieties in one Z-spectrum. METHODS: Phantom studies were used to test vCEST performance in two environments: (1) aqueous single-solute (glycogen, glucose); (2) aqueous multiple solute (glycogen with bovine serum albumin). In vivo vCEST imaging of glycosaminoglycan content in patellar-femoral cartilage was performed in a subject with history of cartilage transplant. RESULTS: In solutions with overlapping resonances, vCEST resolves separate hydroxyl and amine/amide peaks. CEST hydroxyl signal in cartilage is negligible, but with vCEST, hydroxyl signal ranged from 2 to 5% ppm and showed distinct contrast between lesions and normal appearing cartilage. CONCLUSION: Introduced a variable saturation amplitude CEST (vCEST) scheme to improve sensitivity to exchangeable hydroxyl moieties at 3 T resulting in detection of hydroxyl in the presence of multiple solutes with overlapping resonances. Magn Reson Med 76:826-837, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.