Gray Matters in Multiple Sclerosis: Cognitive Impairment and Structural MRI
Messina S., Patti F.
<jats:p>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease affecting central nervous system (CNS). Although MS is classically considered a white matter (WM) disease, the involvement of gray matter (GM) in the pathogenic process has been confirmed by pathology studies and MRI studies. Impairment of cognitive domains such as memory, mental processing speed, attention, and executive function can occur from the early stage of the disease and tends to worsen over time, despite stable physical symptoms. WM demyelination is moderately correlated with CI, suggesting that probably WM abnormalities alone cannot fully explain the extent of clinical symptoms in MS, including CI. Several MRI techniques have shown the involvement of GM in MS and the association between GM damage, physical disability, and CI. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of CI and GM damage assessed by structural brain MRI.</jats:p>