Cloud computing for seizure detection in implanted neural devices.
Baldassano S., Zhao X., Brinkmann BH., Kremen V., Bernabei J., Cook MJ., Denison TJ., Worrell GA., Litt B.
OBJECTIVE:Closed-loop implantable neural stimulators are an exciting treatment option for patients with medically refractory epilepsy, with a number of new devices in or nearing clinical trials. These devices must accurately detect a variety of seizure types in order to reliably deliver therapeutic stimulation. While effective, broadly-applicable seizure detection algorithms have recently been published, these methods are too computationally intensive to be directly deployed in an implantable device. We demonstrate a strategy that couples devices to cloud computing resources in order to implement complex seizure detection methods on an implantable device platform. Approach: We use a sensitive gating algorithm capable of running on-board a device to identify potential seizure epochs and transmit these epochs to a cloud-based analysis platform. A precise seizure detection algorithm is then applied to the candidate epochs, leveraging cloud computing resources for accurate seizure event detection. This seizure detection strategy was developed and tested on eleven human implanted device recordings generated using the NeuroVista Seizure Advisory System. Main Results: The gating algorithm achieved high-sensitivity detection using a small feature set as input to a linear classifier, compatible with the computational capability of next-generation implantable devices. The cloud-based precision algorithm successfully identified all seizures transmitted by the gating algorithm while significantly reducing the false positive rate. Across all subjects, this joint approach detected 99% of seizures with a false positive rate of 0.03/hr. Significance: We present a novel framework for implementing computationally intensive algorithms on human data recorded from an implanted device. By using telemetry to intelligently access cloud-based computational resources, the next generation of neuro-implantable devices will leverage sophisticated algorithms with potential to greatly improve device performance and patient outcomes.