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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the anesthestic and airway management for gastrointestinal procedures outside of the operating room. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed is steadily increasing worldwide. As complexity, duration and invasiveness of procedures increase, there is ever greater requirement for deeper sedation or general anesthesia. A close relationship between anesthetic practitioners and endoscopists is required to ensure safe and successful outcomes. The American Society of Gastrointestinal endoscopy and the British Society of Gastroenterology have recently released guidelines for sedation and general anesthesia in gastrointestinal endoscopy, highlighting the need for careful monitoring for all cases, and anesthetic expertise in complex cases. The recent advances in high-flow nasal oxygenation in sedation may provide alternative options for oxygenation during gastrointestinal sedation, especially in deep sedation and this may reduce the need for general anesthesia. SUMMARY: The advances in gastrointestinal endoscopic intervention have increased the requirement for deep sedation and anesthetic involvement outside of the operating room. Careful titration of anesthetic intervention and close monitoring are required to ensure patient safety.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Opin Anaesthesiol

Publication Date





517 - 522


Airway Management, Anesthesiology, Anesthetics, Conscious Sedation, Deep Sedation, Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal, Gastroenterology, Humans, Pain, Procedural, Practice Guidelines as Topic, Societies, Medical, United Kingdom