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  • Increased cerebral blood volume in HIV-positive patients detected by functional MRI.

    24 October 2018

    OBJECTIVE: To study changes in cerebral hemodynamics related to HIV infection. BACKGROUND: Cerebral injury is a well-known manifestation of HIV infection. Physiologic changes in the HIV brain may precede structural changes and may be detected by functional MRI (fMRI). METHODS: Dynamic contrast fMRI was used to measure the cerebral blood volume (CBV) in 13 patients infected with HIV and in 7 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Significant increases in dynamic CBV were found in the deep (p < 0.001) and cortical gray matter (p < 0.05) of HIV-positive (HIV+) patients. Patients with definite cognitive impairment showed significantly greater increases in CBV in the deep gray matter (DGM) compared with those without impairment. In one patient with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, these abnormalities reversed and paralleled clinical improvement after initiation of zidovudine monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that HIV infection is associated with significant cerebral hemodynamic changes, particularly in the DGM, that may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in AIDS. Functional MRI may be useful for early detection of cerebral injury and for the assessment of novel therapies.

  • Brain metabolism is abnormal in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    24 October 2018

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder primarily affecting young boys, often causing mental retardation in addition to the well-known progressive muscular weakness. Normal dystrophin expression is lacking in skeletal muscle and the CNS of both DMD children and the mdx mouse model. To date, 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has shown in vivo several abnormalities within skeletal muscle of mdx mice and DMD boys. In this study, we determined whether similar abnormalities occur in mdx brain in vivo by using 31P-MRS in addition to metabolite and enzyme analysis to study cerebral metabolism. An increased inorganic phosphate (P(i))/phosphocreatine (PCr) and pH was found in vivo for mdx brain compared with controls, and biochemical analysis showed a reduction in total creatine, an increased extracellular and decreased intracellular volume in mdx brain. No differences were found in any glycolytic or mitochondrial maximal enzyme activities. These changes are discussed with respect to the biochemical changes found in muscle from DMD patients and mdx mice. It is proposed that these biochemical changes may be a factor in the reduced cognitive capacity of mdx mice and some DMD children.

  • Imaging the neural correlates of neuropathic pain and pleasurable relief associated with inherited erythromelalgia in a single subject with quantitative arterial spin labelling

    24 October 2018

    We identified a patient with severe inherited erythromelalgia secondary to an L858F mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7. The patient reported severe ongoing foot pain, which was exquisitely sensitive to limb cooling. We confirmed this heat hypersensitivity using quantitative sensory testing. Additionally, we employed a novel perfusion imaging technique in a simple block design to assess her baseline erythromelalgia pain vs cooling relief. Robust activations of key pain, pain-affect, and reward-related centres were observed. This combined approach allowed us to confirm the presence of a temperature-sensitive channelopathy of peripheral neurons and to investigate the neural correlates of tonic neuropathic pain and relief in a single subject. © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Imaging the neural correlates of neuropathic pain and pleasurable relief associated with inherited erythromelalgia in a single subject with quantitative arterial spin labelling.

    24 October 2018

    We identified a patient with severe inherited erythromelalgia secondary to an L858F mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.7. The patient reported severe ongoing foot pain, which was exquisitely sensitive to limb cooling. We confirmed this heat hypersensitivity using quantitative sensory testing. Additionally, we employed a novel perfusion imaging technique in a simple block design to assess her baseline erythromelalgia pain vs cooling relief. Robust activations of key pain, pain-affect, and reward-related centres were observed. This combined approach allowed us to confirm the presence of a temperature-sensitive channelopathy of peripheral neurons and to investigate the neural correlates of tonic neuropathic pain and relief in a single subject.

  • Activity in ventrolateral and mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during nonspatial visual working memory processing: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    24 October 2018

    Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study five healthy human subjects while they performed two nonspatial visual working memory tasks and one control task. In the first memory task, the subjects were required to view a sequence of three pattern stimuli, randomly selected from a familiar set of four stimuli, and then identify which one of three simultaneously presented stimuli was the one that had not been presented in the previous array. In the other task, the subjects were required to observe an identical sequence of three randomly selected pattern stimuli and then to respond by selecting those same stimuli in the order presented. In comparison to a baseline control task, increases in signal intensity were observed, bilaterally, in the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex and in the right ventrolateral frontal cortex in both memory tasks. When the two tasks were compared directly, however, the first memory task, which had the higher monitoring requirement, yielded significantly greater signal intensity changes in area 9/46 of the right mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex. These results provide further evidence for the precise functional contribution made by the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex in visual working memory tasks and concur closely with findings in nonhuman primates.

  • Activity in ventrolateral and mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during nonspatial visual working memory processing: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging

    24 October 2018

    Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study five healthy human subjects while they performed two nonspatial visual working memory tasks and one control task. In the first memory task, the subjects were required to view a sequence of three pattern stimuli, randomly selected from a familiar set of four stimuli, and then identify which one of three simultaneously presented stimuli was the one that had not been presented in the previous array. In the other task, the subjects were required to observe an identical sequence of three randomly selected pattern stimuli and then to respond by selecting those same stimuli in the order presented. In comparison to a baseline control task, increases in signal intensity were observed, bilaterally, in the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex and in the right ventrolateral frontal cortex in both memory tasks. When the two tasks were compared directly, however, the first memory task, which had the higher monitoring requirement, yielded significantly greater signal intensity changes in area 9/46 of the right mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex. These results provide further evidence for the precise functional contribution made by the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex in visual working memory tasks and concur closely with findings in nonhuman primates. (C) 2000 Academic Press.