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  • Atrial Fibrillation Genetic Risk and Ischemic Stroke Mechanisms.

    31 January 2018

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a leading cause of cardioembolic stroke, but the relationship between AF and noncardioembolic stroke subtypes are unclear. Because AF may be unrecognized, and because AF has a substantial genetic basis, we assessed for predisposition to AF across ischemic stroke subtypes. METHODS: We examined associations between AF genetic risk and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment stroke subtypes in 2374 ambulatory individuals with ischemic stroke and 5175 without from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2 using logistic regression. We calculated AF genetic risk scores using single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with AF in a previous independent analysis across a range of preselected significance thresholds. RESULTS: There were 460 (19.4%) individuals with cardioembolic stroke, 498 (21.0%) with large vessel, 474 (20.0%) with small vessel, and 814 (32.3%) individuals with strokes of undetermined cause. Most AF genetic risk scores were associated with stroke, with the strongest association (P=6×10-4) attributed to scores of 944 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (each associated with AF at P<1×10-3 in a previous analysis). Associations between AF genetic risk and stroke were enriched in the cardioembolic stroke subset (strongest P=1.2×10-9, 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism score). In contrast, AF genetic risk was not significantly associated with noncardioembolic stroke subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive AF genetic risk scores were specific for cardioembolic stroke. Incomplete workups and subtype misclassification may have limited the power to detect associations with strokes of undetermined pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to determine whether AF genetic risk is a useful biomarker to enhance clinical discrimination of stroke pathogeneses.

  • Accuracy of the ABC/2 Score for Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Systematic Review and Analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, and CLEAR III.

    29 December 2017

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized reading center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard computed tomography-based planimetry (CTP). METHODS: In Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation-II (MISTIE-II), Clot Lysis Evaluation of Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage (CLEAR-IVH) and CLEAR-III trials. ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC, and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5 mL and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r(2)=0.93) than with site-ABC (r(2)=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC, 15.2 cm(3); CTP, 12.7 cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorized into mild, moderate, and severe ICH (κ=0.75; P<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6 of 8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5 mL; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5 mL; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥5 mL change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity, 0.76; specificity, 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic hemorrhage, and homogeneous clots. CONCLUSIONS: ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorize ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR-III and MISTIE III studies and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular, or lobar clots. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134.

  • Connectivity and the search for specializations in the language-capable brain

    9 January 2018

    © 2017 The Authors The search for the anatomical basis of language has traditionally been a search for specializations. More recently such research has focused both on aspects of brain organization that are unique to humans and aspects shared with other primates. This work has mostly concentrated on the architecture of connections between brain areas. However, as specializations can take many guises, comparison of anatomical organization across species is often complicated. We demonstrate how viewing different types of specializations within a common framework allows one to better appreciate both shared and unique aspects of brain organization. We illustrate this point by discussing recent insights into the anatomy of the dorsal language pathway to the frontal cortex and areas for laryngeal control in the motor cortex.

  • Published Paper: Frontiers in Physiology

    27 April 2017

    "An ultra­-high field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy study of post exercise lactate, glutamate and glutamine change in the human brain" - Dennis et al. 2015

  • SEND

    20 September 2016

    SEND is an electronic vital signs system that has been jointly developed by Oxford University and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. The system is now live in all adult inpatient areas across the Trust.

  • Neha Kinariwalla

    24 March 2017

  • Osler Travel Award for student to visit PiNG group

    21 June 2016

    Julia Nantes awarded grant to visit PiNG Group in the Autumn

  • Primary Schools

    6 October 2016

    Our scientists love showing primary school children how MRI works and giving them a chance to make up their own experiments to do on our scanners.

  • Secondary Schools

    6 October 2016

    We regularly go out into secondary schools to speak about neuroscience and invite secondary school students into the lab to find out what neuroscience research is really like.

  • The Creative Brain

    6 October 2016

    Bringing together people from a wide range of disciplines, providing a forum to provoke thought and dialogue about how our understanding of neuroscience can impact on all aspects of our lives, and how insights from other fields can enrich our study of neuroscience.

  • Museums and Festivals

    6 October 2016

    Our scientists regularly attend science fairs and put on exhibitions at local museums.

  • Media

    6 October 2016

    Our scientists regularly appear on national media to explain the impact that our work has.