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A CA repeat has been found on the human X chromosome within 16 kb of the gene encoding properdin P factor (PFC) and has been shown to be a highly informative marker. Two more polymorphic CA repeats were found in a cosmid containing DXS228. The CA repeats, and other markers from proximal Xp, were mapped genetically in CEPH families and the likely order of markers was established as Xpter-(DXS7, MAO-A, DXS228)-(PFC, DXS426)-(TIMP, OATL1)-DXS255-Xcen. This places PFC in the region Xp11.3-Xp11.23, thus refining previous in situ hybridization data. Two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) (440 and 390 kb) contain both PFC and DXS426, and one of them (440 kb) also contains TIMP. This confirms the genetic order TIMP-(PFC, DXS426). PFC and TIMP are located on the same 100-kb SalI PvuI fragment of the 440-kb YAC. Given the genetic orientation of TIMP and (PFC, DXS426), this YAC can now serve as a starting point for directional walking toward disease genes located in Xp11.3-Xp11.2 such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP2) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. © 1991.
Rescue of a single yeast artificial chromosome from a cotransformation event utilizing segregation at meiosis
During the construction of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries to facilitate mapping of the human genome, two YACs may be cotransformed into the same yeast cell, making further analysis very difficult. We present a simple method to rescue the required YAC that utilizes the segregation of chromosomes at meiosis. In brief, we crossed the cotransformed yeast cell with a non-YAC-containing strain and induced the resulting diploid to sporulate and undergo meiosis. The new haploid generation included some yeast cells that contained only the desired YAC. These YACs were analyzed by conventional methods. To exclude the possibility that major rearrangement occurred during the procedure, we analyzed the YACs with restriction enzymes that cut only rarely. We conclude that this is a useful technique to rescue cotransformed YACs. © 1993.
Molecular and cellular correlates of human nerve regeneration: ADCYAP1 encoding PACAP enhances sensory neuron outgrowth
Abstract We only have a rudimentary understanding of the molecular and cellular determinants of human nerve regeneration. Here, we use carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as a human model system to prospectively evaluate correlates of neural regeneration and their relationship with clinical recovery after decompression surgery. At 6 months post-surgery, we noted a significant improvement of median nerve neurophysiological and somatosensory function. Serial skin biopsies revealed a partial recovery of intraepidermal innervation, whose extent correlated with symptom improvement. In myelinated afferents, nodal length increased postoperatively. Transcriptional profiling of the skin revealed 23 differentially expressed genes following decompression, with ADCYAP1 (encoding PACAP) being the most strongly upregulated and showing an association with regeneration of intraepidermal nerve fibres. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons, we confirmed that PACAP significantly enhances axon outgrowth in vivo . Since PACAP signals through G-protein receptors, this pathway provides an interesting therapeutic target for human sensory nerve regeneration.