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Novel probes have been developed for optical tomography (whole-brain imaging) and optical topography (cortical mapping) of the newborn brain. These have been evaluated on a range of infants at rest and during functional stimulation. © 2006 Optical Society of America.
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been associated with various cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Reliable quantification of WMHs is essential for understanding their clinical impact in normal and pathological populations. Automated segmentation of WMHs is highly challenging due to heterogeneity in WMH characteristics between deep and periventricular white matter, presence of artefacts and differences in the pathology and demographics of populations. In this work, we propose an ensemble triplanar network that combines the predictions from three different planes of brain MR images to provide an accurate WMH segmentation. Also, the network uses anatomical information regarding WMH spatial distribution in loss functions for improving the efficiency of segmentation and to overcome the contrast variations between deep and periventricular WMHs. We evaluated our method on 5 datasets, of which 3 are part of a publicly available dataset (training data for MICCAI WMH Segmentation Challenge 2017 - MWSC 2017) consisting of subjects from three different cohorts. On evaluating our method separately in deep and periventricular regions, we observed robust and comparable performance in both regions. Our method performed better than most of the existing methods, including FSL BIANCA, and on par with the top ranking deep learning method of MWSC 2017.</jats:p>
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Accurately quantifying gene and isoform expression changes is essential to understanding cell functions, differentiation and disease. Therefore, a crucial requirement of RNA sequencing is identifying differential expression. The recent development of long-read direct RNA (dRNA) sequencing has the potential to overcome many limitations of short and long-read sequencing methods that require RNA fragmentation, cDNA synthesis or PCR. dRNA sequences native RNA and can encompass an entire RNA in a single read. However, its ability to identify differential gene and isoform expression in complex organisms is poorly characterised. Using a mixture of synthetic controls and human SH-SY5Y cell differentiation into neuron-like cells, we show that dRNA sequencing accurately quantifies RNA expression and identifies differential expression of genes and isoforms. We generated ∼4 million dRNA reads with a median length of 991 nt. On average, reads covered 74% of SH-SY5Y transcripts and 29% were full-length. Measurement of expression and fold changes between synthetic control RNAs confirmed accurate quantification of genes and isoforms. Differential expression of 231 genes, 291 isoforms, plus 27 isoform switches were detected between undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and samples clustered by differentiation state at the gene and isoform level. Genes upregulated in neuron-like cells were associated with neurogenesis. We further identified >30,000 expressed transcripts including thousands of novel splice isoforms and transcriptional units. Our results establish the ability of dRNA sequencing to identify biologically relevant differences in gene and isoform expression and perform the key capabilities of expression profiling methodologies.</jats:p>
Abstract Homeostatic regulation of sleep is reflected in the maintenance of a daily balance between sleep and wake. Although numerous internal and external factors can influence sleep, it is unclear whether and to what extent the process that keeps track of time spent awake is determined by the content of the waking experience. We hypothesised that alterations in environmental conditions may elicit different types of wakefulness, which will in turn influence both the capacity to sustain continuous wakefulness as well the rates of accumulating sleep pressure. To address this, we performed two experiments, where we compared wakefulness dominated by novel object exploration with either (i) the effects of voluntary wheel running (Experiment 1) or (ii) performance in a simple touchscreen task (Experiment 2). We find that voluntary wheel running results in longer wake episodes, as compared with exploratory behaviour; yet it does not lead to higher levels of EEG slow wave activity (SWA) during subsequent sleep. On the other hand, engagement in a touchscreen task, motivated by a food reward, results in lower SWA during subsequent sleep, as compared to exploratory wakefulness, even though the total duration of wakefulness was similar. Overall, our study suggests that sleep-wake behaviour is highly flexible within an individual, and that the homeostatic process that keeps track of time spent awake is sensitive to the nature of the waking experience. We therefore conclude that sleep dynamics are determined, to a large degree, by the interaction between the organism and the environment.
Abstract Torpor is a regulated reversible state of metabolic suppression used by many mammalian species to conserve energy. Although torpor has been studied extensively in terms of general physiology, metabolism and neuroendocrinology, the effects of hypometabolism and associated hypothermia on brain activity and states of vigilance have received little attention. Here we performed continuous monitoring of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG) and peripheral body temperature in adult, male C57BL/6 mice over consecutive days of scheduled restricted feeding. All animals showed prominent bouts of hypothermia that became progressively deeper and longer as fasting progressed. EEG and EMG were markedly affected by hypothermia, although the typical electrophysiological signatures of NREM sleep, REM sleep and wakefulness allowed us to perform vigilance-state classification in all cases. Invariably, hypothermia bouts were initiated from a state indistinguishable from NREM sleep, with EEG power decreasing gradually in parallel with decreasing body temperature. Furthermore, during deep hypothermia REM sleep was largely abolished, but we observed brief and intense bursts of muscle activity, which resembled the regular motor discharges seen during early ontogeny associated with immature sleep patterns. We conclude that torpor and sleep are electrophysiologically on a continuum, and that, in order for torpor to occur, mice need to first transition through euthermic sleep.
Distinctive binding properties of human monoclonal LGI1 autoantibodies determine pathogenic mechanisms.
Autoantibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) are found in patients with limbic encephalitis and focal seizures. Here, we generate patient-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against LGI1. We explore their sequences and binding characteristics, plus their pathogenic potential using transfected HEK293T cells, rodent neuronal preparations, and behavioural and electrophysiological assessments in vivo after mAb injections into the rodent hippocampus. In live cell-based assays, LGI1 epitope recognition was examined with patient sera (n = 31), CSFs (n = 11), longitudinal serum samples (n = 15), and using mAbs (n = 14) generated from peripheral B cells of two patients. All sera and 9/11 CSFs bound both the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and the epitempin repeat (EPTP) domains of LGI1, with stable ratios of LRR:EPTP antibody levels over time. By contrast, the mAbs derived from both patients recognized either the LRR or EPTP domain. mAbs against both domain specificities showed varied binding strengths, and marked genetic heterogeneity, with high mutation frequencies. LRR-specific mAbs recognized LGI1 docked to its interaction partners, ADAM22 and ADAM23, bound to rodent brain sections, and induced internalization of the LGI1-ADAM22/23 complex in both HEK293T cells and live hippocampal neurons. By contrast, few EPTP-specific mAbs bound to rodent brain sections or ADAM22/23-docked LGI1, but all inhibited the docking of LGI1 to ADAM22/23. After intrahippocampal injection, and by contrast to the LRR-directed mAbs, the EPTP-directed mAbs showed far less avid binding to brain tissue and were consistently detected in the serum. Post-injection, both domain-specific mAbs abrogated long-term potentiation induction, and LRR-directed antibodies with higher binding strengths induced memory impairment. Taken together, two largely dichotomous populations of LGI1 mAbs with distinct domain binding characteristics exist in the affinity matured peripheral autoantigen-specific memory pools of individuals, both of which have pathogenic potential. In human autoantibody-mediated diseases, the detailed characterization of patient mAbs provides a valuable method to dissect the molecular mechanisms within polyclonal populations.