Found 18527 matches for
Stroke remains the biggest cause of disability in the UK, and completely changed the life of celebrated broadcaster and political journalist Andrew Marr in 2013. The life-threatening stroke resulted in his family being told twice that he was unlikely to survive, and if he did, that he may never regain normal speech, cognitive function or movement.
Adapting the UK Biobank brain imaging protocol and analysis pipeline for the C-MORE multi-organ study of COVID-19 survivors
ABSTRACTSARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to damage multiple organs, including the brain. Multiorgan MRI can provide further insight on the repercussions of COVID-19 on organ health but requires a balance between richness and quality of data acquisition and total scan duration. We adapted the UK Biobank brain MRI protocol to produce high-quality images while being suitable as part of a post-COVID-19 multiorgan MRI exam. The analysis pipeline, also adapted from UK Biobank, includes new imaging-derived phenotypes (IDPs) designed to assess the effects of COVID-19. A first application of the protocol and pipeline was performed in 51 COVID-19 patients post-hospital discharge and 25 controls participating in the Oxford C-MORE study.The protocol acquires high resolution T1, T2-FLAIR, diffusion weighted images, susceptibility weighted images, and arterial spin labelling data in 17 minutes. The automated imaging pipeline derives 1575 IDPs, assessing brain anatomy (including olfactory bulb volume and intensity) and tissue perfusion, hyperintensities, diffusivity, and susceptibility. In the C-MORE data, these quantitative measures were consistent with clinical radiology reports. Our exploratory analysis tentatively revealed that recovered COVID-19 patients had a decrease in frontal grey matter volumes, an increased burden of white matter hyperintensities, and reduced mean diffusivity in the total and normal appearing white matter in the posterior thalamic radiation and sagittal stratum, relative to controls. These differences were generally more prominent in patients who received organ support. Increased T2* in the thalamus was also observed in recovered COVID-19 patients, with a more prominent increase for non-critical patients.This initial evidence of brain changes in COVID-19 survivors prompts the need for further investigations. Follow-up imaging in the C-MORE study is currently ongoing, and this protocol is now being used in large-scale studies. The pipeline is widely applicable and will contribute to new analyses to hopefully clarify the medium to long-term effects of COVID-19.HighlightsUK Biobank brain MRI protocol and pipeline was adapted for multiorgan MRI of COVID-19High-quality brain MRI data from 5 modalities are acquired in 17 minutesAnalysis pipeline derives 1575 IDPs of brain anatomy, perfusion, and microstructureEvidence of brain changes in COVID-19 survivors was found in the C-MORE studyThis MRI protocol is now being used in multiple large-scale studies on COVID-19
The spongiform encephalopathies are unusual in several respects. Firstly, they are transmissible, and in some cases inheritable. Secondly, variants of these disorders occur in many species and can be transmitted by consumption of infected material; this has led to concern as to the potential risk from eating contaminated animal products. Thirdly, increasing evidence suggests that a ‘prion’ protein is central to their aetiology and pathogenesis, and that no nucleic acid is involved in the infective process. The role of the prion gene and its protein is outlined and proposed as the basis for an improved classification of the transmissible dementias.
The case of a man presenting with paedophilia who has found to be hyperprolactinaemic is described. There is possibly a link between paedophilia and endocrine disorders.
Recent clinical studies have identified significant olfactory deficits in several neuropsychiatric disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These have correlated with neurochemical and neuropathological studies of the olfactory system. The presence of a specific sensory deficit may be related to the localisation of pathology within the brain. There is a need for incorporation of olfactory testing into routine clinical examination.