Treatment of MOG antibody associated disorders: results of an international survey.
Whittam DH., Karthikeayan V., Gibbons E., Kneen R., Chandratre S., Ciccarelli O., Hacohen Y., de Seze J., Deiva K., Hintzen RQ., Wildemann B., Jarius S., Kleiter I., Rostasy K., Huppke P., Hemmer B., Paul F., Aktas O., Pröbstel AK., Arrambide G., Tintore M., Amato MP., Nosadini M., Mancardi MM., Capobianco M., Illes Z., Siva A., Altintas A., Akman-Demir G., Pandit L., Apiwattankul M., Hor JY., Viswanathan S., Qiu W., Kim HJ., Nakashima I., Fujihara K., Ramanathan S., Dale RC., Boggild M., Broadley S., Lana-Peixoto MA., Sato DK., Tenembaum S., Cabre P., Wingerchuk DM., Weinshenker BG., Greenberg B., Matiello M., Klawiter EC., Bennett JL., Wallach AI., Kister I., Banwell BL., Traboulsee A., Pohl D., Palace J., Leite MI., Levy M., Marignier R., Solomon T., Lim M., Huda S., Jacob A.
INTRODUCTION: While monophasic and relapsing forms of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated disorders (MOGAD) are increasingly diagnosed world-wide, consensus on management is yet to be developed. OBJECTIVE: To survey the current global clinical practice of clinicians treating MOGAD. METHOD: Neurologists worldwide with expertise in treating MOGAD participated in an online survey (February-April 2019). RESULTS: Fifty-two responses were received (response rate 60.5%) from 86 invited experts, comprising adult (78.8%, 41/52) and paediatric (21.2%, 11/52) neurologists in 22 countries. All treat acute attacks with high dose corticosteroids. If recovery is incomplete, 71.2% (37/52) proceed next to plasma exchange (PE). 45.5% (5/11) of paediatric neurologists use IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) in preference to PE. Following an acute attack, 55.8% (29/52) of respondents typically continue corticosteroids for ≥ 3 months; though less commonly when treating children. After an index event, 60% (31/51) usually start steroid-sparing maintenance therapy (MT); after ≥ 2 attacks 92.3% (48/52) would start MT. Repeat MOG antibody status is used by 52.9% (27/51) to help decide on MT initiation. Commonly used first line MTs in adults are azathioprine (30.8%, 16/52), mycophenolate mofetil (25.0%, 13/52) and rituximab (17.3%, 9/52). In children, IVIg is the preferred first line MT (54.5%; 6/11). Treatment response is monitored by MRI (53.8%; 28/52), optical coherence tomography (23.1%; 12/52) and MOG antibody titres (36.5%; 19/52). Regardless of monitoring results, 25.0% (13/52) would not stop MT. CONCLUSION: Current treatment of MOGAD is highly variable, indicating a need for consensus-based treatment guidelines, while awaiting definitive clinical trials.