Closed-loop DBS triggered by real-time movement and tremor decoding based on thalamic LFPs for essential tremor
He S., Debarros J., Khawaldeh S., Pogosyan A., Mostofi A., Baig F., Pereira E., Brown P., Tan H.
High frequency Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) targeting the motor thalamus is an effective therapy for essential tremor (ET). However, since tremor mainly affects periods of voluntary movements and sustained postures in ET, conventional continuous stimulation may deliver unnecessary current to the brain. Here we tried to decode movement states based on local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from motor thalamus and zona incerta in real-time to trigger the switching on and off of DBS in three patients with ET. Patient-specific models were first identified using thalamic LFPs recorded while the patient performed movements that tended to trigger tremor in everyday life. During the real-time test, LFPs were continuously recorded to decode movements and tremor, and the detection triggered stimulation. Results show that voluntary movements can be detected with a mean sensitivity ranging from 76.8% to 88.6% and a false positive rate ranging from 16.0% to 23.1% Postural tremor was detected with similar accuracy. The closed-loop DBS triggered by tremor detection suppressed intention tremor by 90.5% with a false positive rate of 20.3%.Clinical Relevance - This is the first study on closed-loop DBS triggered by real-time movement and tremor decoding based solely on thalamic LFPs. The results suggest that responsive DBS based on movement and tremor detection can be achieved without any requirement for external sensors or additional electrocorticography strips.