Comparative neuroscience is entering the era of big data. New high-throughput methods and data-sharing initiatives have resulted in the availability of large, digital data sets containing many types of data from ever more species. Here, we present a framework for exploiting the new possibilities offered. The multimodality of the data allows vertical translations, which are comparisons of different aspects of brain organization within a single species and across scales. Horizontal translations compare particular aspects of brain organization across species, often by building abstract feature spaces. Combining vertical and horizontal translations allows for more sophisticated comparisons, including relating principles of brain organization across species by contrasting horizontal translations, and for making formal predictions of unobtainable data based on observed results in a model species. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience, Volume 44 is July 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Annu Rev Neurosci