Multimodal Analysis of the Visual Pathways in Friedreich's Ataxia Reveals Novel Biomarkers.
Thomas-Black G., Altmann DR., Crook H., Solanky N., Carrasco FP., Battiston M., Grussu F., Yiannakas MC., Kanber B., Jolly JK., Brett J., Downes SM., Moran M., Chan PK., Adewunmi E., Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott CAM., Németh AH., Festenstein R., Bremner F., Giunti P.
BACKGROUND: Optic neuropathy is a near ubiquitous feature of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Previous studies have examined varying aspects of the anterior and posterior visual pathways but none so far have comprehensively evaluated the heterogeneity of degeneration across different areas of the retina, changes to the macula layers and combined these with volumetric MRI studies of the visual cortex and frataxin level. METHODS: We investigated 62 genetically confirmed FRDA patients using an integrated approach as part of an observational cohort study. We included measurement of frataxin protein levels, clinical evaluation of visual and neurological function, optical coherence tomography to determine retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and macular layer volume and volumetric brain MRI. RESULTS: We demonstrate that frataxin level correlates with peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and that retinal sectors differ in their degree of degeneration. We also shown that retinal nerve fibre layer is thinner in FRDA patients than controls and that this thinning is influenced by the AAO and GAA1. Furthermore we show that the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers are affected in FRDA. Our MRI data indicate that there are borderline correlations between retinal layers and areas of the cortex involved in visual processing. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the uneven distribution of the axonopathy in the retinal nerve fibre layer and highlight the relative sparing of the papillomacular bundle and temporal sectors. We show that thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer is associated with frataxin levels, supporting the use the two biomarkers in future clinical trials design. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.