Neural oscillatory activities in basal ganglia have prominent roles in cognitive processes. However, the characteristics of oscillatory activities during cognitive tasks have not been extensively explored in human Globus Pallidus internus (GPi). This study aimed to compare oscillatory characteristics of GPi between dystonia and Parkinson's Disease (PD). A dystonia and a PD patient performed the Intra-Extra-Dimension shift (IED) task during both on and off-medication states. During the IED task, patients had to correctly choose between two visual stimuli containing shapes or lines based on a hidden rule via trial and error. Immediate auditory and visual feedback was provided upon the choice to inform participants if they chose correctly. Bilateral GPi Local Field Potentials (LFP) activity was recorded via externalized DBS leads. Transient high gamma activity (~ 100-150 Hz) was observed immediately after feedback in the dystonia patient. Moreover, these bursts were phase synchronous between left and right GPi with an antiphase clustering of phase differences. In contrast, no synchronous high gamma activity was detected in the PD patient with or without dopamine administration. The off-med PD patient also displayed enhanced low frequency clusters, which were ameliorated by medication. The current study provides a rare report of antiphase homotopic synchrony in human GPi, potentially related to incorporating and processing feedback information. The absence of these activities in off and on-med PD patient indicates the potential presence of impaired medication independent feedback processing circuits. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for GPi's synchronized activity in shaping feedback processing mechanisms required in cognitive tasks.
Humans, Globus Pallidus, Dystonia, Feedback, Deep Brain Stimulation, Parkinson Disease, Dystonic Disorders