Agreement between TOAST and CCS ischemic stroke classification: the NINDS SiGN study.
McArdle PF., Kittner SJ., Ay H., Brown RD., Meschia JF., Rundek T., Wassertheil-Smoller S., Woo D., Andsberg G., Biffi A., Brenner DA., Cole JW., Corriveau R., de Bakker PIW., Delavaran H., Dichgans M., Grewal RP., Gwinn K., Huq M., Jern C., Jimenez-Conde J., Jood K., Kaplan RC., Katschnig P., Katsnelson M., Labovitz DL., Lemmens R., Li L., Lindgren A., Markus HS., Peddareddygari LR., Pedersén A., Pera J., Redfors P., Roquer J., Rosand J., Rost NS., Rothwell PM., Sacco RL., Sharma P., Slowik A., Sudlow C., Thijs V., Tiedt S., Valenti R., Worrall BB., NINDS SiGN Study None.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the level of agreement between stroke subtype classifications made using the Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) and Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) systems. METHODS: Study subjects included 13,596 adult men and women accrued from 20 US and European genetic research centers participating in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). All cases had independently classified TOAST and CCS stroke subtypes. Kappa statistics were calculated for the 5 major ischemic stroke subtypes common to both systems. RESULTS: The overall agreement between TOAST and CCS was moderate (agreement rate, 70%; κ = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.60). Agreement varied widely across study sites, ranging from 28% to 90%. Agreement on specific subtypes was highest for large-artery atherosclerosis (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.69-0.73) and lowest for small-artery occlusion (κ = 0.56, 95% CI 0.54-0.58). CONCLUSION: Agreement between TOAST and CCS diagnoses was moderate. Caution is warranted when comparing or combining results based on the 2 systems. Replication of study results, for example, genome-wide association studies, should utilize phenotypes determined by the same classification system, ideally applied in the same manner.