Found 18017 matches for
<jats:p>The immune system has long been recognised important in pain regulation through inflammatory cytokine modulation of peripheral nociceptive fibres. Recently, cytokine interactions in brain and spinal cord glia as well as dorsal root ganglia satellite glia have been identified important— in pain modulation. The result of these interactions is central and peripheral sensitisation of nociceptive processing. Additionally, new insights and the term ‘autoimmune pain’ have emerged through discovery of specific IgGs targeting the extracellular domains of antigens at nodal and synaptic structures, causing pain directly without inflammation by enhancing neuronal excitability. Other discovered IgGs heighten pain indirectly by T-cell-mediated inflammation or destruction of targets within the nociceptive pathways. Notable identified IgGs in pain include those against the components of channels and receptors involved in inhibitory or excitatory somatosensory synapses or their pathways: nodal and paranodal proteins (LGI1, CASPR1, CASPR2); glutamate detection (AMPA-R); GABA regulation and release (GAD65, amphiphysin); glycine receptors (GLY-R); water channels (AQP4). These disorders have other neurological manifestations of central/peripheral hyperexcitabability including seizures, encephalopathy, myoclonus, tremor and spasticity, with immunotherapy responsiveness. Other pain disorders, like complex regional pain disorder, have been associated with IgGs against β2-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic-2 receptors, AChR-nicotinic ganglionic α-3 receptors and calcium channels (N and P/Q types), but less consistently with immune treatment response. Here, we outline how the immune system contributes to development and regulation of pain, review specific IgG-mediated pain disorders and summarise recent development in therapy approaches. Biological agents to treat pain (anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide and anti-nerve growth factor) are also discussed.</jats:p>
ErbB receptor signaling directly controls oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transformation and spontaneous remyelination after spinal cord injury.
We recently discovered a novel role for neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) signaling in mediating spontaneous regenerative processes and functional repair after spinal cord injury (SCI). We revealed that Nrg1 is the molecular signal responsible for spontaneous functional remyelination of dorsal column axons by peripheral nervous system (PNS)-like Schwann cells after SCI. Here, we investigate whether Nrg1/ErbB signaling controls the unusual transformation of centrally derived progenitor cells into these functional myelinating Schwann cells after SCI using a fate-mapping/lineage tracing approach. Specific ablation of Nrg1-ErbB receptors in central platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)-derived lineage cells (using PDGFRαCreERT2/Tomato-red reporter mice crossed with ErbB3fl/fl/ErbB4fl/fl mice) led to a dramatic reduction in P0-positive remyelination in the dorsal columns following spinal contusion injury. Central myelination, assessed by Olig2 and proteolipid protein expression, was unchanged. Loss of ErbB signaling in PDGFRα lineage cells also significantly impacted the degree of spontaneous locomotor recovery after SCI, particularly in tests dependent on proprioception. These data have important implications, namely (a) cells from the PDGFRα-expressing progenitor lineage (which are presumably oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, OPCs) can differentiate into remyelinating PNS-like Schwann cells after traumatic SCI, (b) this process is controlled by ErbB tyrosine kinase signaling, and (c) this endogenous repair mechanism has significant consequences for functional recovery after SCI. Thus, ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor signaling directly controls the transformation of OPCs from the PDGFRα-expressing lineage into PNS-like functional remyelinating Schwann cells after SCI.
Acute pain signaling has a key protective role and is highly evolutionarily conserved. Chronic pain, however, is maladaptive, occurring as a consequence of injury and disease, and is associated with sensitization of the somatosensory nervous system. Primary sensory neurons are involved in both of these processes, and the recent advances in understanding sensory transduction and human genetics are the focus of this review. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are important determinants of sensory neuron excitability: they are essential for the initial transduction of sensory stimuli, the electrogenesis of the action potential, and neurotransmitter release from sensory neuron terminals. Nav1.1, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 are all expressed by adult sensory neurons. The biophysical characteristics of these channels, as well as their unique expression patterns within subtypes of sensory neurons, define their functional role in pain signaling. Changes in the expression of VGSCs, as well as posttranslational modifications, contribute to the sensitization of sensory neurons in chronic pain states. Furthermore, gene variants in Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 have now been linked to human Mendelian pain disorders and more recently to common pain disorders such as small-fiber neuropathy. Chronic pain affects one in five of the general population. Given the poor efficacy of current analgesics, the selective expression of particular VGSCs in sensory neurons makes these attractive targets for drug discovery. The increasing availability of gene sequencing, combined with structural modeling and electrophysiological analysis of gene variants, also provides the opportunity to better target existing therapies in a personalized manner.
Microdeletion in a FAAH pseudogene identified in a patient with high anandamide concentrations and pain insensitivity.
The study of rare families with inherited pain insensitivity can identify new human-validated analgesic drug targets. Here, a 66-yr-old female presented with nil requirement for postoperative analgesia after a normally painful orthopaedic hand surgery (trapeziectomy). Further investigations revealed a lifelong history of painless injuries, such as frequent cuts and burns, which were observed to heal quickly. We report the causative mutations for this new pain insensitivity disorder: the co-inheritance of (i) a microdeletion in dorsal root ganglia and brain-expressed pseudogene, FAAH-OUT, which we cloned from the fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) chromosomal region; and (ii) a common functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in FAAH conferring reduced expression and activity. Circulating concentrations of anandamide and related fatty-acid amides (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamine) that are all normally degraded by FAAH were significantly elevated in peripheral blood compared with normal control carriers of the hypomorphic single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genetic findings and elevated circulating fatty-acid amides are consistent with a phenotype resulting from enhanced endocannabinoid signalling and a loss of function of FAAH. Our results highlight previously unknown complexity at the FAAH genomic locus involving the expression of FAAH-OUT, a novel pseudogene and long non-coding RNA. These data suggest new routes to develop FAAH-based analgesia by targeting of FAAH-OUT, which could significantly improve the treatment of postoperative pain and potentially chronic pain and anxiety disorders.
Development of MRC Centre MRI calf muscle fat fraction protocol as a sensitive outcome measure in Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy Type 1.
OBJECTIVES: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN1) is a rare, slowly progressive neuropathy causing profound sensory deficits and often severe motor loss. L-serine supplementation is a possible candidate therapy but the lack of responsive outcome measures is a barrier for undertaking clinical trials in HSN1. We performed a 12-month natural history study to characterise the phenotype of HSN1 and to identify responsive outcome measures. METHODS: Assessments included Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score version 2 (CMTNSv2), CMTNSv2-Rasch modified, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, intraepidermal nerve fibre density (thigh), computerised myometry (lower limbs), plasma 1-deoxysphingolipid levels, calf-level intramuscular fat accumulation by MRI and patient-based questionnaires (Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory and 36-Short Form Health Survey version 2 [SF-36v2]). RESULTS: 35 patients with HSN1 were recruited. There was marked heterogeneity in the phenotype mainly due to differences between the sexes: males generally more severely affected. The outcome measures that significantly changed over 1 year and correlated with CMTNSv2, SF-36v2-physical component and disease duration were MRI determined calf intramuscular fat accumulation (mean change in overall calf fat fraction 2.36%, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.55, p=0.0004), pressure pain threshold on the hand (mean change 40 kPa, 95% CI 0.7 to 80, p=0.046) and myometric measurements of ankle plantar flexion (median change -0.5 Nm, IQR -9.5 to 0, p=0.0007), ankle inversion (mean change -0.89 Nm, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.12, p=0.03) and eversion (mean change -1.61 Nm, 95% CI -2.72 to -0.51, p=0.006). Intramuscular calf fat fraction was the most responsive outcome measure. CONCLUSION: MRI determined calf muscle fat fraction shows validity and high responsiveness over 12 months and will be useful in HSN1 clinical trials.
Increasing evidence suggests that nerve fibers responding to noxious stimuli (nociceptors) modulate immunity in a variety of tissues, including the skin. Yet, the role of nociceptors in regulating sterile cutaneous inflammation remains unexplored. To address this question, we have developed a detailed description of the sterile inflammation caused by overexposure to UVB irradiation (i.e., sunburn) in the mouse plantar skin. Using this model, we observed that chemical depletion of nociceptor terminals did not alter the early phase of the inflammatory response to UVB, but it caused a significant increase in the number of dendritic cells and αβ+ T cells as well as enhanced extravasation during the later stages of inflammation. Finally, we showed that such regulation was driven by the nociceptive neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide. In conclusion, we propose that nociceptors not only play a crucial role in inflammation through avoidance reflexes and behaviors, but can also regulate sterile cutaneous immunity in vivo.