Inequities in hypertension management: observational cross-sectional study in North East London using electronic health records
Rison S., Redfern O., Dostal I., Carvalho C., Mathur R., Raisi-Estabragh Z., Robson J.
BackgroundHypertension is a key modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease – the leading cause of death in the UK. Good blood pressure (BP) control reduces mortality. However, health inequities may lead to variability in hypertension monitoring and control.AimTo investigate health inequities related to ethnicity, sex, age, and socioeconomic status in the monitoring, treatment, and control of BP in a large cohort of adult patients with hypertension.Design and settingA cross-sectional cohort study of adults with hypertension registered with general practices in North East London on 1 April 2019.MethodMultivariable logistic regression was used to estimate associations of demographics and treatment intensity for the following hypertension management indicators: a) BP recording in past 12 months; b) BP on age- adjusted target; and c) BP on age-adjusted target and BP recorded in past 12 months.ResultsIn total, 156 296 adults were included. The Black ethnicity group was less likely to have controlled BP than the White ethnicity group (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% [confidence interval] CI = 0.84 to 0.91). The Asian ethnicity group was more likely to have controlled BP (OR 1.28, 95% CI = 1.23 to 1.32). Ethnicity differences in control could not be explained by the likelihood of having a recent BP recording, nor by treatment intensity differences. Older adults (aged ≥50 years) were more likely to have controlled hypertension than younger patients.ConclusionIndividuals of Black ethnicity and younger people are less likely to have controlled hypertension and may warrant targeted interventions. Possible explanations for these findings are presented but further research is needed about reasons for ethnic differences.