Membrane Cholesterol Efflux Drives Tumor-Associated Macrophage Reprogramming and Tumor Progression
Goossens P., Rodriguez-Vita J., Etzerodt A., Masse M., Rastoin O., Gouirand V., Ulas T., Papantonopoulou O., Van Eck M., Auphan-Anezin N., Bebien M., Verthuy C., Vu Manh TP., Turner M., Dalod M., Schultze JL., Lawrence T.
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Macrophages possess intrinsic tumoricidal activity, yet tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) rapidly adopt an alternative phenotype within the tumor microenvironment that is marked by tumor-promoting immunosuppressive and trophic functions. The mechanisms that promote such TAM polarization remain poorly understood, but once identified, they may represent important therapeutic targets to block the tumor-promoting functions of TAMs and restore their anti-tumor potential. Here, we have characterized TAMs in a mouse model of metastatic ovarian cancer. We show that ovarian cancer cells promote membrane-cholesterol efflux and depletion of lipid rafts from macrophages. Increased cholesterol efflux promoted IL-4-mediated reprogramming, including inhibition of IFNγ-induced gene expression. Genetic deletion of ABC transporters, which mediate cholesterol efflux, reverts the tumor-promoting functions of TAMs and reduces tumor progression. These studies reveal an unexpected role for membrane-cholesterol efflux in driving TAM-mediated tumor progression while pointing to a potentially novel anti-tumor therapeutic strategy. Goossens, Rodriguez-Vita et al. show that cancer cells scavenge membrane cholesterol from tumor-associated macrophages, resulting in their reprogramming toward an immune-suppressive and tumor-promoting phenotype. Targeting cholesterol efflux in macrophages counters this reprogramming and reduces tumor progression in a model of ovarian cancer.