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Pain and other symptoms of autonomic dysregulation such as hypertension, dyspnoea and bladder instability can lead to intractable suffering. Incorporation of neuromodulation into symptom management, including palliative care treatment protocols, is becoming a viable option scientifically, ethically, and economically in order to relieve suffering. It provides further opportunity for symptom control that cannot otherwise be provided by pharmacology and other conventional methods.

Original publication




Journal article


Brain Sci

Publication Date





bladder control, blood pressure, deep brain stimulation (DBS), dyspnoea, hypertension, micturition, neuromodulation, orthostatic hypotension, pain