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<jats:sec><jats:title>Background:</jats:title><jats:p> Antihypertensive drugs, especially calcium channel blockers, have been associated with differential rates of a number of neuropsychiatric outcomes. Delirium is commonly attributed to medication, including antihypertensive drugs, but delirium incidence has not been compared directly between antihypertensive drug classes. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods:</jats:title><jats:p> Using a federated electronic health records network of 25.5 million people aged 50 years or older, we measured rates of delirium over a two-year period in patients prescribed calcium channel blockers compared to the other main antihypertensive drug classes. Extensive propensity score matching was used to create cohorts matched for a range of demographic factors and delirium risk factors. Negative control outcomes were also measured. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results:</jats:title><jats:p> Cohort sizes ranged from 54,000–577,000. Delirium was more common with calcium channel blockers than with renin-angiotensin system agents (~40% higher) but less common than with beta-blockers (~20% lower). These differences remained when patients with a range of other delirium risk factors were excluded, and they were not paralleled by the negative control outcomes. Comparisons between calcium channel blockers and diuretics produced inconclusive results. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions:</jats:title><jats:p> Calcium channel blockers are associated with higher rates of delirium than renin-angiotensin system agents, but lower rates compared to beta-blockers. The findings add to the list of factors which may be considered when choosing antihypertensive drug class. </jats:p></jats:sec>

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Psychopharmacology


SAGE Publications

Publication Date



026988112093650 - 026988112093650