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Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) associated with neural autoantibodies is increasingly recognized as a cause of subacute onset amnesia, confusion, and seizures. In the past decade, several key antibody targets have been identified in AIE. These include the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, voltage-gated potassium channel complexes-in particular leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). There is accumulating clinical and laboratory evidence that antibodies targeting the extracellular domains of cell-surface molecules are directly pathogenic. Each antibody target associates with a spectrum of clinical features and relative response to immunotherapies. These immunotherapies have been shown to improve short- and long-term clinical outcomes in affected patients. AIE is an important differential diagnosis to consider in patients presenting with symptoms of encephalitis as early diagnosis can lead to successful treatment.

Original publication




Journal article


European Neurological Review

Publication Date





87 - 92