Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

UNLABELLED: This study proposes an event-related potential (ERP) BCI-based environmental control system that integrates household electrical appliances, a nursing bed, and an intelligent wheelchair to provide daily assistance to paralyzed patients with severe spinal cord injuries (SCIs). METHODS: An asynchronous mode is used to switch the environmental control system on or off or to select a device (e.g., a TV) for achieving selfpaced control. In the asynchronous mode, we introduce several pseudo-keys and a verification mechanism to effectively reduce the false operation rate. By contrast, when the user selects a function of the device (e.g., a TV channel), a synchronous mode is used to improve the accuracy and speed of BCI detection. Two experiments involving six SCI patients were conducted separately in a nursing bed and a wheelchair, and the patients were instructed to control the nursing bed, the wheelchair, and household electrical appliances (an electric light, an air conditioner, and a TV). RESULTS: The average false rate of BCI commands in the control state was 10.4%, whereas the average false operation ratio was 4.9% (a false BCI command might not necessarily result in a false operation according to our system design). During the idle state, there was an average of 0.97 false positives per minute, which did not result in any false operations. CONCLUSION: All SCI patients could use the proposed ERP BCIbased environmental control system satisfactorily. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed ERP-based environmental control system could be used to assist patients with severe SCIs in their daily lives.

Original publication




Journal article


IEEE Trans Biomed Eng

Publication Date





1959 - 1971